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16 October 2012 Comparison of intraspecific genetic structure among related chironomids (Diptera) from New Zealand and Patagonia: disparity between potential and realized dispersal
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Abstract

Population genetic studies of freshwater invertebrate taxa in New Zealand and South America are currently few despite the geologically and climatically dynamic histories of these regions. The focus of our study was a comparison of the influence on realized dispersal of 2 closely related nonbiting midges (Chironomidae) of population fragmentation on these separated austral land masses. We used a 734-base pair (bp) fragment of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) to investigate intraspecific genetic structure in Naonella forsythi Boothroyd in New Zealand and Ferringtonia patagonica Edwards in Patagonia. We proposed hypotheses about their potential dispersal and, hence, expected patterns of genetic structure in these 2 species based on published patterns for the closely related Australian taxon Echinocladius martini Cranston. Genetic structure revealed for both N. forsythi and F. patagonica was characterized by several highly divergent (2.0–10.5%) lineages of late Miocene–Pliocene age within each taxon that were not geographically localized. Many were distributed widely. This pattern differed greatly from population structure in E. martini, which was typified by much greater endemicity of divergent genetic lineages. Nevertheless, diversification of lineages in all 3 taxa appeared to be temporally congruent with the onset of late Miocene glaciations in the southern hemisphere that may have driven fragmentation of suitable habitat, promoting isolation of populations and divergence in allopatry. We argue that differences in realized dispersal post-isolation may be the result of differing availability of suitable habitat in interglacial periods.

The Society for Freshwater Science
Matt N. Krosch, Andrew M. Baker, and Peter B. Mather "Comparison of intraspecific genetic structure among related chironomids (Diptera) from New Zealand and Patagonia: disparity between potential and realized dispersal," Freshwater Science 31(4), 1105-1120, (16 October 2012). https://doi.org/10.1899/12-044.1
Received: 20 March 2012; Accepted: 1 July 2012; Published: 16 October 2012
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