A new species of the genus Nyctiophylax Brauer 1865, Nyctiophylax (Paranyctiophylax) gaditana sp. n., endemic to the southern Iberian Peninsula, is described and illustrated. To date, Nyctiophylax is known in the Western Palearctic region only through fossil representatives, some of which are preserved in Baltic amber. This finding is the first record of a living species of the genus Nyctiophylax for the European fauna. A key is provided to distinguish adult Nyctiophylax from other European genera of Polycentropodidae based on wing venation characters. The new species appears to be related to 2 Eastern Palaearctic species: Nyctiophylax (Paranyctiophylax) hjangsanchonus Botosaneanu 1970 from Korea and Nyctiophylax (Paranyctiophylax) adaequatus Wang and Yang 1997 from China, but it also could be related to the African species. Last, the ecology of the new species is described.
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