Several Cenozoic endocarp remains from the northern hemisphere have been described with strong affinities to either Menispermum L. or Sinomenium Diels, a monophyletic group of menispermous vines. It has been proposed that all of these fossil species are synonymous and should be included within Sinomenium. In order to evaluate this suggestion, we have studied the morphological variation ranges in the menispermous endocarps with geometric morphometrics, and then the ranges of the selected fossil endocarps is compared to the ranges of modern endocarps. The shape of each endocarp is described using eight landmarks and 17 semilandmarks, accounting for the outline and the positions of lateral ridge and foramen on the endocarps. Endocarp ornamentation is studied by statistical comparisons of the number of transverse ridges. It is concluded that the ranges of variation within the fossil genera, all morphologically related to horseshoe-shaped endocarps in Menispermaceae, are found not to be greater than that in the only extant species of Sinomenium, S. acutum (Thunb.) Render & Wilson. Sinomenium macrocarpum Liu & Jacques, 2010 differs from the other fossil species of Sinomenium by its higher number of transverse ridges. All other fossil species of Sinomenium, except S. macrocarpum, and Wardensheppeya Eyde, 1970 are synonymous. Menispermum? taylori Chandler, 1964 is transferred to Sinomenium. The fossil genus Palaeosinomenium Chandler, 1961 is confirmed through the obliquity of its endocarp, but all species are found to be synonymous. Menispermicarpum rariforme Chandler, 1961 is also included in Palaeosinomenium.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.
Vol. 33 • No. 1