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1 December 2007 Biogeography and Ecology of the Alstroemeriaceae-Luzuriagaceae Clade in the High-Mountain Regions of Central and South America
Anton Hofreiter
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The distribution pattern of the Alstroemeriaceae-Luzuriagaceae clade in the high-mountain regions of Central and South America is examined. This mountain region is divided into 23 geographic regions. The geographic regions are defined by geographic barriers, mostly stretches of lowland between mountains or deep valleys. The similarities of the species composition in the 23 geographic regions are analyzed using distance algorithm UPGMA. The geographic regions are treated like taxa, and the distributions of 143 species are treated as characters. The distribution pattern is compared with vegetation, climate, and geologic patterns. Several distribution boundaries are identified, some are ecological, others geographic. The two most important distribution boundaries are (1) between Brazilian coastal mountains and the Andes (geographic) and (2) between the Chilean/Argentinean Andes and the Andes north of Argentina (ecological—the axis of maximal dryness). The first two regions are dominated by Alstroemeria species, the last by Bomarea. In the Tepui region of Venezuela and Brazil almost no Alstroemeriaceae species occur. The center of species diversity for Bomarea is in southern Ecuador/northern Peru; a second small center of diversity is the cordilleras of Costa Rica and northern Panama. In the first region, the eastern mountains of Brazil and surrounding lowlands, around 39 Alstroemeria species and 1 Bomarea species occur. In the Chilean/Argentinean Andes, 37 Alstroemeria species can be found but only 2 Bomarea species. In the more northern Andes, around 115 Bomarea species occur, but only 3 Alstroemeria species. In the Andes, where six barriers can be identified, only two cannot be explained ecologically—one is geographic and one remains unexplained.

Anton Hofreiter "Biogeography and Ecology of the Alstroemeriaceae-Luzuriagaceae Clade in the High-Mountain Regions of Central and South America," Harvard Papers in Botany 12(2), 259-284, (1 December 2007).[259:BAEOTA]2.0.CO;2
Published: 1 December 2007
and Bomarea
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