McIllmurray and Oakeley (2004) demonstrated that the name Maxillaria ramosa has been misapplied to Ornithidium pendulum since 1967, and possibly corresponds to M. cassapensis. We refer Ornithidium ochraceum, O. loefgrenii, and Maxillaria spathulata to the synonymy of O. pendulum (in addition to the already recognized synonyms O. dichotomum and Scaphyglottis tafallae), and designate a lectotype for O. dichotomum. Anew species from Venezuela and the Guianas (Ornithidium elianae), previously confused with O. pendulum, is described. An updated description of O. pendulum is presented along with a review of its complicated taxonomic history and the first record of this species for Costa Rica.
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