A revision of the American species of the genus Crateva (Capparaceae) recognizes four species: (1) C. palmeri, a CentralAmerican species with short, stubby, pubescent inflorescences distinguished by the furfuraceous trichomes, leaflets sessile or with short petiolules to 4 mm, and short axis of infructescences, 1–6 cm. Unpublished isotypes, local names, and uses of C. palmeri are cited herein; (2) the widespread and glabrous C. tapia, ranging form Mexico to Argentina and the Lesser Antilles. Its variable floral morphology is discussed, and local names and uses are also reported for this species. Among its synonyms, Cleome arborea, Crataeva benthamii, and C. radiatiflora are lectotypified, and unpublished types are published for C. benthamii, C. benthamii var. leptopetala, C. radiatiflora, and C. glauca; (3) C. urbaniana, an endemic to Cuba and Dominican Republic, which is characterized by having flowers apetalous and (4−)6(−7) sepals. Unpublished isotypes are also published for C. urbaniana; and, (4) C. yarinacochaensis sp. nov., a local endemic of theAmazonian rainforests around Lago Yarinacocha, an old lake close to the Rio Ucayali ca. 4–6 km NW of Pucallpa, in the Department of Ucayali, eastern Peru. This new species is characterized by the elongate glabrous inflorescences on leafless or new-leaved branches, flowers with linear ovaries, and the fruits are highly distinctive narrowly-oblong or oblong-elliptic pepos with attenuate apex. A generic description and a key for the American species of Crateva is herewith provided.
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