Two new genera and three new combinations are proposed herein for Neotropical Capparaceae: Caphexandra, a monospecific genus of shrubs or small trees from southern Mexico to Panama, distinguished by the branchlets with subterminal small cataphylls on the raceme axis, calyces with closed aestivation in bud with the outer pair of sepals enclosing the dimorphic inner pair, asymmetric corollas with large unguiculate petals, long (2–5 mm) narrowly-lanceolate floral nectaries, and six stamens arranged in one whorl, which at anthesis forms adaxially an hemiorbicular arc opposite to the gynophore. Caphexandra is represented only by the new combination C. heydeana, a species of horticultural interest herein transferred from Capparis, and Preslianthus, a genus of shrubs or trees from Nicaragua to Brazil, characterized by a stellate pubescence, and flowers with stamens conspicuously accrescent just before anthesis. Preslianthus comprises the following two species, herein proposed as new combinations, also transferred from Capparis: Preslianthus detonsus and Preslianthus pittieri. Capparis schunkei is synonymyzed under P. pittieri. The new genera are illustrated and their relationships discussed.