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Carapa comprises trees confined to tropical forests in Africa and America. Previous revisions of the genus based primarily on herbarium specimens recognized few variable species, but also stressed the need for further research to clarify and understand the patterns of morphological variation in these species complexes. In the present revision, 27 species are recognized in Carapa of which 16 occur in Africa and 11 in America. Nine new species are described and illustrated, and a new combination is proposed. The remaining 17 species correspond to either recently described species or previously described species that had been placed in synonymy. A key to the 27 species and their distribution maps are provided.
The new species Englerocharis dentata and Eudema peruviana are described, illustrated, and their relationships to nearest relatives are discussed. The former is readily distinguished from its other congeners by it broadly spatulate, 7–9-dentate leaves (vs. narrower, entire leaves). Eudema peruviana is the smallest plant in the genus and is hardly 1 cm tall and with linear, glabrous leaves, unbranched caudex without leaf remains, persistent sepals, and broadly globose, angustiseptate fruits. Keys to species of Englerocharis and to the Peruvian species of Eudema are given.
The current taxonomic status of all 140 Brassicaceae taxa (three genera, two varieties, and 135 species) described by Rodulfo A. Philippi are determined. One of his three genera (Onuris) is recognized, and Agallis and Heterocarpus were previously reduced to synonymy of Tropidocarpum and Cardamine, respectively. Of his 135 species, only 43 (or 31.9%) are currently accepted. Of these, 18 species remained in the genera to which they were originally assigned, 22 were transferred to other genera, and three received new names because they were later homonyms. The two Philippi varieties are no longer recognized. Fifty-one species (Cardamine andicola, C. andina, C. caespitosa, C. calbucana, C. flavescens, C. litoralis, C. macrostachya, C. marginata, C. micropetala, C. monticosa, C. ovata, C. palenae, C. petiolulata, C. reniformis, C. stricta, C. tridens, C. valdiviana, Draba andina, D. araucana, D. colchaguensis, D. davilae, D. depilis, D. intricatissima, D. leyboldii, D. patagonica, D. pusilla, D. rosulata, D. saffordii, Hexaptera pusilla, H. tridens, H. violacea, H. virens, Mathewsia auriculata, Menonvillea gayi, M. orbiculata, M. parviflora, M. parvula, Nasturtium coxii, N. siifolium, N. stenophyllum, Onuris graminifolia, Sisymbrium brachycarpum, S. consanguineum, S. depressum, S. dianthoides, S. floridum, S. hispidum, S. minutiflorum, S. polyphyllum, S. rubescens, and S. tenuissimum) are lectotypified. Furthermore, 23 species names (Cardamine andicola, C. ciliata, C. gongylodes, C. granulata, C. litoralis, C. magellanica, C. ovata, C. palenae, C. soehrensii, C. stricta, C. triphylla, Diplotaxis vernalis, Draba depilis, Nasturtium hastatum, N. patens, N. siifolium, Sisymbrium elegantulum, S. floridum, S. glaucescens, S. tenuissimum, S. umbelliferum, Thlaspi exile, and Turritis chilensis) are synonymized herein for the first time. Three of the four species described by his son Federico Philippi are currently recognized and listed below.
The gasteroid genus Richoniella and the cyphelloid genus Rhodocybella (Entolomataceae) are poorly known fungal genera that have yet to be evaluated in depth in a molecular phylogenetic context. Here, we report a recent find, including detailed descriptions and photographs, of the rarely collected gasteroid species Richoniella asterospora from southeast North America. Phylogenetic placement of this species within a multi-gene treatment of the Entolomataceae supports the polyphyly of Richoniella. Richoniella asterospora shares an alliance with agaricoid and secotioid species within the diverse, heteromorphic genus Entoloma. Also rarely encountered is the cyphelloid genus Rhodocybella, known only from southeast North America. Molecular annotation and phylogenetic analysis of the holotype suggest an affiliation with two lignicolous European pileate-stipitate species of Entoloma, E. pluteisimilis and E. zuccherellii. Results from molecular annotation of three additional species of Entolomataceae are also reported. In addition, we propose recognition of the following robust monophyletic groups: the Pouzarella clade within the genus Entoloma; and the genera Rhodocybe and Clitopilopsis and the Rhodophana clade, apart from the genus Clitopilus, within which they have been recently subsumed. Both Richoniella asterospora and Rhodocybella rhododendri are transferred to the genus Entoloma to maintain its monophyly.
Fifty-eight new species from regions north and west of Brazil are described and illustrated in miscellaneous genera of the Pleurothallidinae. A new combination in Crocodeilanthe, C. bracteosa, is proposed, as well as the new generic name Lalexia to replace the invalid name Loddigesia. A new combination in Lalexia, L. quadrifida is also proposed. Pleurothallis ringens is transferred to Talpinaria and recognized as distinct from Pleurothallis hitchcockii (= Talpinaria hitchcockii). These two species are discussed and described, and the treatment of Talpinaria hitchcockii in Icones Pleurothallidinarum XVI is revised. Porroglossum miguelangelii, originally described for Ecuador, is placed in synonymy with Porroglossum tokachii, a species heretofore known only from Amazonian Peru. In alphabetical order, the new species proposed herein are: Acianthera cornejoi, A. fernandezii, A.tanyae; Acronia miniatura, A. niesseniae, A. rinkei, A. werneri, Alaticaulia amsleri, A. cracens, Ancipitia dubbeldamii, A.renieana, Crocodeilanthe franciscensis, C.juxta, C. mendietae, C. speciosa, C. werneri, Dracula gerhardii, Effusiella werneri, Kraenzlinella rinkei, Lepanthes anemica, L.barclaya, L. brevipedicellata, L. carrilloi, L. chocoënsis, L. ericae, L. eucerca, L. heteroloba, L.juan-felipei, L. lacera, L. macdougalii, L. maria-victoriae, L. medinae, L. pictoris, L. reburra; Luzama dejonghei; Masdevallia odnalorii, M. sentinella; Octomeria werneri; Porroglossum adrianae, P. apoloae, P. dejonghei, P. ecuagenerense, P. myosurotum; Regalia antonii; Restrepia peetersii; Rodrigoa ruthiana; Scaphosepalum rinkei; Stelis compressicauls, S. conduplicata, S. discrepans, S. franciscensis, S. malvina, S. modica, S. pilulosa, S. regia, S. rudolphiana, S. thelephora, and S. tyria.
In preparation for a series of publications on the pleurothallid genera of Brazil, twenty-four new species have been discovered. They are described and illustrated here. Two new species, Acianthera klingelfusii and Anathallis johnsonii, are described for Argentina, the former also occurring in Brazil. The other 22 species are exclusively Brazilian in distribution. They are listed here in generic alphabetical order: Anathallis crassapex, A. dantasii, A. gutfreundii A. paula, A. pilipetala, A. seidelii, A. velvetina, Pabstiella acrogenia, P. analoga, P. capijumensis, P. decurva, P. discors, P. freyi, P. gossameri, P. lacerticeps, P. melior, P. nymphalis, P. osculator, P. quasi, P. sansonii, P. savioi, and Specklinia erecta. Eleven new combinations are proposed in the Brazilian Pleurothallidinae: Pabstiella bicolor, P. colorata, P. diffusiflora, P. dracula, P. ochracea, P. pantherina, P. punctata, P. purpurea, P. seriata, P. viridula, and Specklinia barbosae.
Additional collections and observations of living material shed new light on Salvia subg. Calosphace sect. Wrightiana, which comprises three species endemic to Cuba and Hispaniola. A new key and expanded descriptions are presented, a lectotype is designated for Salvia wunschmannii, which is a synonym of S.densiflora. One species, S.strobilanthoides, is known only from the type and has not been collected since 1860.
A synopsis of the genus Macrocarpaea in Bolivia is presented. Four species are recognized including M. bangiana Gilg, M. cinchonifolia (Gilg) Weaver, M. cochabambensis Gilg-Ben., and fuentesii J.R. Grant, sp. nov. These are the four southernmost species of Macrocarpaea in the Andes.
Outside of the principal distribution and major diversification of Macrocarpaea in the Andes, smaller groups of species are found in the Greater Antilles of the Caribbean, Mesoamerica, the Guayana Highlands, and montane Atlantic forests of Brazil. Here, a complete revision of the genus in the latter region is presented recognizing eight species that correspond to the entirety of Macrocarpaea sect. Tabacifoliae: M atlantica J.R. Grant & V. Trunz, sp. nov.,M. dolichophylla J.R. Grant & V. Trunz, sp. nov., M. glaziovii Gilg, M. illecebrosa J.R. Grant, M. inesiae J.R. Grant & V. Trunz, sp. nov., M. obtusifolia (Griseb.) Gilg, M. orbiculata J.R. Grant & V. Trunz, sp. nov., and M. rubra Malme. These species occur primarily in humid coastal montane rainforests (Mata Atlântica), and two species also occur in campos rupestre montane savannas.