Taxonomic relationships between Blossfeldia liliputana Werdermann and other members of the Cactoideae have not been fully clear due to morphological and anatomical peculiarities of this diminutive species. Current classifications place Blossfeldia in Tribe Notocacteae Buxbaum due to similarities in seed morphology with Parodia microsperma Weber (Spegazzini). Following an extensive molecular study by Nyffeler, the phylogenetic placement of Blossfeldia was shown to be as the sister lineage to the Cactoideae, a finding which Nyffeler considered extremely intriguing. A number of hypotheses have been advanced to explain Nyffeler's puzzle. In this paper, the author investigates the phylogenetic position of Blossfeldia through the use of the presence/absence of the chloroplast rpoC1 intron, which is missing in all members of Cactoideae sampled to date. Blossfeldia possesses the rpoC1 intron, thus supporting Nyffeler's previous findings and dismissing other hypotheses regarding Blossfeldia. A new tribe, Blossfeldieae, is described for Blossfeldia.
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