We describe a new species of Eleutherodactylus from the lowlands of the western Amazon Basin. The new species is referred to the Eleutherodactylus unistrigatus group, lacrimosus assemblage. It differs from other members of the group by having a dorsal olive-green coloration with an interorbital creamy yellow stripe that extends posterolaterally and reaches the level of the sacrum, and low ulnar and tarsal tubercles. The new species inhabits western Amazon tropical rainforests and has been found in arboreal bromeliads by day and on vegetation by night. We discuss the effect of lack of sampling in the forest canopy in our understanding of tropical amphibian communities. Based on work conducted at two localities in Ecuadorian Amazonia, we find that even limited sampling effort in the canopy can greatly improve efficiency of biological inventories.
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