Males of Tornier's Forest Toad, Nectophrynoides tornieri, were observed to perform a peculiar display posture, the ‘push-up’: the males raised themselves from a substrate (always a plant structure) by first stretching their fore legs into a ‘sit-up’ and then their hind legs to assume the position. We examined possible functions for the push-up position in manipulative behavioral experiments. In a majority of the tested males, the introduction of a conspecific male only evoked the less conspicuous sit-up display, whereas a playback of male vocalization more often triggered the full push-up position, usually followed by a vocal response. We found no association between the sit-up and the push-up display and the presence of a female N. tornieri near a male's calling perch. Our findings support the hypothesis that the push-up posture is a display in response to other calling males; whilst being the usual calling posture, it might also be important in visual communication. We describe in detail the characteristics of the call for the first time; vocalizing males were found at more elevated positions than previously reported and there were no common distinctive microhabitat features between calling sites.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.
Vol. 67 • No. 2