I present a phylogenetic analysis of the lizard genus Anolis using new morphological data in combination with diverse data from the literature. Ninety-one characters of osteology and external anatomy were completely or partially scored for 174 Anolis species and seven outgroups. These data were combined with data from chromosomes, DNA sequences, allozymes, and immunology and analyzed with parsimony to produce an estimate of Anolis relationships. The genus Anolis was supported as monophyletic. Anolis occultus is sister to the rest of the genus. A South American and Southern Lesser Antillean clade is sister to the Greater Antillean and Northern Lesser Antillean Anolis and a clade of mainland species. Successive clades of Caribbean Alpha Anolis are sister to the Beta Anolis (Norops) clade. Within the Betas, the Jamaican Betas are sister to the remaining Betas, and the Cuban Betas are sister to the monophyletic mainland forms. Other higher-level groupings of previous authors were not supported, but members of some previously-recognized lower-level groups formed clades: roquet series, “Phenacosaurus”, cybotes series, cristatellus species group, bimaculatus series/species group, hendersoni species group, chlorocyanus series, equestris series, grahami series, sagrei series, crassulus species group, gadovii species group, laeviventris species group, nebulosus species group.
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