Interindividual and interethnic differences in allele frequencies of N-acetyltransferase (NAT2) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are responsible for phenotypic variability of adverse drug reactions and susceptibility to cancer. We genotyped the seven NAT2 common SNPs in 127 randomly selected unrelated northern Sudanese subjects using allele-specific and RFLP polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods. Molecular genotyping was enough to designate alleles for 41 individuals unambiguously, whereas 63 individuals' alleles were inferred from haplotypes previously described. In the remaining 23 individuals, however, the phase of the SNPs could not be decided because of multiple SNP heterozygotes. Using computational methods in the HAP and Phase programs, we confirmed the inferred alleles of the 62 individuals and predicted the remaining 23 ambiguous alleles. Twelve NAT2 alleles were identified. Four alleles coded for rapid acetylators (18%), and eight alleles coded for slow acetylators (82%). Two genotypes coded for rapid acetylation (3.9%), 10 for intermediate acetylation (27.6%), and 13 for slow acetylation (68.5%). The G191A African SNP and the G857A predominantly Asian SNP were each detected at a low frequency of 3.1%. The combination of molecular and computational analysis was useful in resolving ambiguous genotypes of NAT2 in multiple SNP heterozygotes. Among the northern Sudanese the SNPs associated with slow acetylation are more prevalent than in Caucasians and Asians. This and other African studies are suggestive of an African origin for NAT2-associated polymorphism.
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Vol. 79 • No. 4