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6 October 2021 Reconstruction of Femur Length Using Epiphyseal and Diaphyseal Diameters in Contemporary Egyptian Sample, with Application to Ancient Egyptians
MennattAllah Hassan Attia, Fatma Mohamed Magdy Badr El-Dine, Nancy Mohamed Aly El-Sekily
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Abstract

Inferences in bioarchaeology and forensic contexts require mathematical stature estimation using long bone lengths. This study aimed to identify predictors of femur length (FL) from epiphyseal and diaphyseal width measurements that are not bound to assumptions of sex or laterality. To compute linear regression models, both standard and new measurements around the diaphyseal dominant nutrient foramina (NF) were collected on modern femora (n = 64) from the unidentified skeletal collection housed at Alexandria University. Four equations were then validated on an ancient Egyptian sample (n = 73) from the Goldman Osteometric Data Set to evaluate the effect of sex subdivision on the accuracy of FL and indirect stature estimations using Raxter's formulas. Most of models reflected significant positive association (r > 0.60) between width variables and FL. Oddly, the distance from the proximal end to the NF correlated weakly with FL (r = 0.34). The stepwise selected equations preferred measurements around NF to midshaft, with the anteroposterior diameter included in the proximal fragment model (r = 0.77), and circumference in diaphyseal fragment model (r = 0.62). Tested equations performed consistently on the ancient Egyptian sample. Measurements from the femoral proximal fragment are more reliable predictors than those from the distal fragment, with the exception of femur neck diameter. However, distal epicondylar breadth is a better predictor of FL in females than in males. Indirect stature estimation showed a reasonable degree of accuracy in both sexes. These models can be applied successfully in contemporary and ancient Egyptian fragmentary remains; however, due to larger size of femora from the Old Kingdom sample, they would be most applicable to individuals from later dynasties.

Copyright © 2021 Wayne State University Press, Detroit, Michigan 48201
MennattAllah Hassan Attia, Fatma Mohamed Magdy Badr El-Dine, and Nancy Mohamed Aly El-Sekily "Reconstruction of Femur Length Using Epiphyseal and Diaphyseal Diameters in Contemporary Egyptian Sample, with Application to Ancient Egyptians," Human Biology 92(4), 229-245, (6 October 2021). https://doi.org/10.13110/humanbiology.92.4.03
Received: 28 August 2020; Accepted: 2 March 2021; Published: 6 October 2021
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