The transcription factor, sterol regulatory binding protein 1c (also called adipocyte determination and differentiation-dependent factor 1), stimulates transcription of the messenger ribonucleic acids (mRNAs) for lipid synthesis enzymes. Hepatic ADD1 transcripts are reduced by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). The ADD1 transcripts are expressed to a considerable extent in porcine adipocytes. Consequently, it was of interest to examine the effects of several PUFAs on ADD1 in a tissue wherein several long-chain fatty acids (FAs) increase adipocyte differentiation. The effects of arachidonic acid (C20:4), docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6), and cis 9, trans 11–conjugated linoleic acid (9,11-CLA) on differentiating preadipocyte ADD1 mRNA and protein and on preadipocyte differentiation were determined. Porcine stromal–vascular cells were plated in serum-containing medium and differentiated in serum-free medium containing insulin, hydrocortisone, and transferrin ± an individual FA. After 24-h differentiation ± FA, plates were stained with Oil Red O as an indicator of differentiation or total RNA was extracted or a nuclear fraction was isolated for protein measurement. Addition of C20:4 or 9,11-CLA increased the number of Oil Red O–stained cells or the Oil Red O–stained material, whereas C22:6 did not. Addition of C20:4, C22:6, or 9,11-CLA decreased the concentration of the mRNA and protein for ADD1. Thus, although all three FAs decreased the ADD1 mRNA and protein concentrations, C20:4 and 9,11-CLA increased differentiation, measured by Oil Red O staining, whereas C22:6 did not. The data suggest that the regulation of differentiation and mRNAs by individual FAs may involve distinct mechanisms.
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Vol. 38 • No. 6