Media components used for three stages of development: (1) callus maintenance, (2) maturation of embryos, and (3) conversion of embryos to plants were shown to affect regeneration of plants for the commercially important red rose cultivar Kardinal. Embryogenic callus was maintained for 5 yr on either Schenk and Hildebrandt's basal salts medium (SH) supplemented with 13.6 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) or Murashige and Skoog's basal salts medium (MS) supplemented with 18.1 μM dicamba and 0.46 μM kinetin. Maturation of embryos was three times higher using callus maintained on the SH medium supplemented with 2,4-D while conversion of cotyledonary-stage embryos to plants was significantly higher (10 times) using callus that had been maintained on MS medium with dicamba and kinetin. Maximum maturation (13.5%) and conversion (15.2%) occurred when callus was cultured on MS maturation medium without hormones. Cotyledonary-stage embryos cultured on MS conversion medium supplemented with abscisic acid (5–20 μM) produced plants that survived at a significantly higher rate (two times) in the greenhouse than when embryos were cultured without abscisic acid. The highest rate of plant regeneration occurred when embryogenic callus of ‘Kardinal’ was maintained on MS medium supplemented with dicamba and kinetin, maturation of embryos occurred on MS maturation medium without hormones, and conversion of cotyledonary-stage embryos occurred on MS conversion medium supplemented with abscisic acid.
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Vol. 41 • No. 1