In researching the application of genetic transformation to lily breeding, callus formation from cultured explants and plant regeneration from induced calluses were examined in 33 Lilium genotypes, 21 species, three Asiatic hybrids, two LA hybrids, two Longiflorum hybrids, three Oriental hybrids, and two Trumpet hybrids. Seed, bulb scale, leaf, or filament explants were placed on a medium containing 4.1 μM 4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid (picloram; PIC) and cultured in the dark. After 2 mo., callus formation was observed in 30 genotypes, and a formation frequency of more than 50% was obtained in 24 genotypes. Bulb scale and filament explants showed great ability to form calluses, whereas seeds had poor ability. Most of the induced calluses were yellow and had a nodular appearance. When subcultured onto the same fresh medium, twofold or more increases in callus mass were obtained in 1 mo. for 15 genotypes. Callus lines showing sustained growth 1 yr after the initiation of subculture were examined for their ability to produce shoots on a medium without plant growth regulators (PGRs) and a medium containing 22 μM 6-benzyladenine (BA). Shoot regeneration was observed in all genotypes examined, and a regeneration frequency of over 80% was obtained in 20 genotypes. Initial explants used for callus induction and callus type (nodular or friable) had no effect on shoot regeneration. Most of the regenerated shoots developed into complete plantlets following their transfer to a PGR-free medium.
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Vol. 41 • No. 6