Callus induction and regeneration studies were carried out on a medicinal fern, Drynaria quercifolia native to Asian countries. It is a seasonal fern that regenerates only during the monsoons. Callus was induced on Knop's (1865) medium supplemented with 20 g l−1 sucrose, 8 g l−1 agar, and either 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), 4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid (picloram), or indole-3-butyric acid at different concentrations. Morphogenetic callus obtained on 5 mg l−1 2,4,5-T was subcultured onto solid and liquid media (shaken flask and discontinuously stirred bioreactor cultures) for callus proliferation and regeneration studies. A significant amount of sporophyte regeneration was observed on solid medium containing 10 mg l−1 6-(γ,γ-dimethylallylamino) purine (2iP). Sporophyte regeneration from callus followed an atypical pattern of development. Leafy structures of single-cell thickness with a microrhizome were formed as sporophyte initials. Prolonged cultures of these structures resulted in the formation of juvenile sporophytes in vitro. The use of liquid media resulted in increased biomass in culture. The present study is the first report of a successful system for callus production and regeneration of sporophytes from leafy structures in ferns. The method can be successfully applied for generation of biomass of D. quercifolia, throughout the year.
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Vol. 42 • No. 6