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31 December 2022 Species Delineation Within the Euwallacea fornicatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Complex Revealed by Morphometric and Phylogenetic Analyses
Demian F. Gomez, James Skelton, M. Sedonia Steininger, Richard Stouthamer, Paul Rugman-Jones, Wisut Sittichaya, Robert J. Rabaglia, Jiri Hulcr
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Abstract

The ambrosia beetle Euwallacea fornicatus Eichhoff sensu lato is a complex of genetically divergent emerging pests responsible for damages to tree industries and ecosystems around the world. All lineages within the species complex are currently considered morphologically identical, presenting problems for their delineation and highlighting the shortcomings of species concepts based solely on type-specimen morphology.The objectives of this work were to 1) broaden the geographic sampling of the E. fornicatus complex in Asia, 2) reconstruct relationships between clades and populations, 3) find morphological characters or combinations of characters which are useful in delimiting the genetic lineages of the E. fornicatus species complex, and 4) propose taxonomic delimitation of species where morphology and phylogenetic identity correlate. Our integrated approach using molecular and morphological evidence suggests four clades that differ morphologically, but with overlap, therefore, cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (COI) barcoding remains necessary for assigning specimens to a clade.The following taxonomic changes are proposed: E. fornicatus (Eichhoff 1868) (= ‘Tea Shot Hole Borer Clade a’); E. fornicatior (Eggers 1923), stat. rev. (= ‘Tea Shot Hole Borer Clade b’); E. whitfordiodendrus (Schedl 1942), stat. rev. (= ‘Polyphagous Shot Hole Borer’); and E. kuroshio Gomez and Hulcr, sp. nov. (= ‘Kuroshio Shot Hole Borer’). This approach delivers a practical, evidence-based guidance for species delineation that can address overlapping variation in morphological characters of an emerging pest species complex.

© The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Demian F. Gomez, James Skelton, M. Sedonia Steininger, Richard Stouthamer, Paul Rugman-Jones, Wisut Sittichaya, Robert J. Rabaglia, and Jiri Hulcr "Species Delineation Within the Euwallacea fornicatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Complex Revealed by Morphometric and Phylogenetic Analyses," Insect Systematics and Diversity 2(6), 1-11, (31 December 2022). https://doi.org/10.1093/isd/ixy018
Received: 24 May 2018; Accepted: 22 October 2018; Published: 31 December 2022
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KEYWORDS
ambrosia beetle
cryptic species
invasive species
morphology
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