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31 December 2022 Estimating the Drivers of Diversification of Stoneflies Through Time and the Limits of Their Fossil Record
Corentin Jouault, André Nel, Frédéric Legendre, Fabien L. Condamine
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Deciphering the timing of lineage diversification and extinction has greatly benefited in the last decade from methodological developments in fossil-based analyses. If these advances are increasingly used to study the past dynamics of vertebrates, other taxa such as insects remain relatively neglected. Our understanding of how insect clades waxed and waned or of the impact of major paleoenvironmental changes during their periods of diversification and extinction (mass extinction) are rarely investigated. Here, we compile and analyze the fossil record of Plecoptera (1,742 vetted occurrences) to investigate their genus-level diversification and diversity dynamics using a Bayesian process-based model that incorporates temporal preservation biases. We found that the Permian-Triassic mass extinction has drastically impacted Plecoptera, while the Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution corresponds with a turnover of plecopteran fauna. We also unveiled three major gaps in the plecopteran fossil record: the Carboniferous-Permian transition, the late Early Cretaceous, and the late Cenomanian to Bartonian, which will need to be further investigated. Based on the life history of extant Plecoptera, we investigate the correlations between their past dynamic and a series of biotic (Red Queen hypothesis) and abiotic (Court Jester hypothesis) factors. These analyses highlight the major role of continental fragmentation in the evolutionary history of stoneflies, which is in line with phylogeny-based biogeographic analyses showing how vicariance drove their diversification. Our study advocates analyzing the fossil record with caution, while attempting to unveil the diversification and extinction periods plus the likely triggers of these past dynamics of diversification.

© The Author(s) 2022. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:
Corentin Jouault, André Nel, Frédéric Legendre, and Fabien L. Condamine "Estimating the Drivers of Diversification of Stoneflies Through Time and the Limits of Their Fossil Record," Insect Systematics and Diversity 6(4), 1-14, (31 December 2022).
Received: 25 February 2022; Accepted: 17 June 2022; Published: 31 December 2022

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Bayesian inferences
fossil record
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