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1 November 2005 Individuals versus Organisms versus Populations in the Definition of Ecological Assessment Endpoints
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Abstract

Discussions and applications of the policies and practices of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in ecological risk assessment will benefit from continued clarification of the concepts of assessment endpoints and of levels of biological organization. First, assessment endpoint entities and attributes can be defined at different levels of organization. Hence, an organism-level attribute, such as growth or survival, can be applied collectively to a population-level entity such as the brook trout in a stream. Second, assessment endpoints for ecological risk assessment are often mistakenly described as “individual level,” which leads to the idea that such assessments are intended to protect individuals. Finally, populations play a more important role in risk assessments than is generally recognized. Organism-level attributes are used primarily for population-level assessments. In addition, the USEPA and other agencies already are basing management decisions on population or community entities and attributes such as production of fisheries, abundance of migratory bird populations, and aquatic community composition.

Glenn W. Suter II, Susan B. Norton, and Anne Fairbrother "Individuals versus Organisms versus Populations in the Definition of Ecological Assessment Endpoints," Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 1(4), 397-400, (1 November 2005). https://doi.org/10.1897/1551-3793(2005)1[397:IVOVPI]2.0.CO;2
Received: 26 January 2005; Accepted: 1 April 2005; Published: 1 November 2005
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