While transparency, cryptic coloration, and counterillumination are all highly successful cryptic strategies for pelagic species, they become less effective when confronted with varying optical conditions. Transparent species are susceptible to detection by reflections from their body surface, particularly at shallow depths. Colored and mirrored species are vulnerable to detection when viewed from certain angles, or at certain times of day. Counterilluminating species must cope with the changes in the angular distribution and spectra of downwelling light at different depths. In all cases the vulnerabilities are more pronounced at shallow depths and essentially negligible at depths greater than 200 m. The results suggest interesting adaptations both for crypsis (e.g., anti-reflection coatings, variable coloration, variable filters for photophores) and for visual detection (e.g., circling, crepuscular predation), all of which are potentially fruitful topics for future research.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.
Vol. 43 • No. 4