There are two main approaches to nature conservation in forest management. In the segregation approach, nature conservation is one of the management objectives which is limited to protected forest areas, while the integration approach considers the economic, social, and ecological components of sustainable forest management at the same time and place. Nature-based (close-to-nature) silviculture and forest planning that conserve natural stand dynamics, respect the local site conditions, monitor forest ecosystems and their conservation status, and harmonise suitable measures addressed to management objectives and nature conservation standards are crucial for integrating nature conservation into forest management. The social, economic, and bio-geographical conditions of forests vary greatly; therefore, concepts of integrating nature conservation into forest management cannot be uniform. On a global scale, the segregation model is generally accepted as the most suitable approach, but the integration model could be a possible alternative in many cases.
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Vol. 13 • No. 1