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1 October 2009 Cool-Season Turfgrass Survival on Two Former Golf Courses in Michigan
Mark A. Garrison, John C. Stier, John N. Rogers, Alec R. Kowalewski
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Most turfgrass species have been listed as either invasive or potentially invasive species in the U.S., but few data exist to verify their invasiveness. Our objective was to determine cool-season turfgrass survival on two abandoned golf courses to assess their invasive potential in unmanaged sites. Maintenance operations ceased at Matheson Greens Golf Course in 2000 and at Four Winds Golf Course in 2003. The frequency and abundance of creeping bentgrass, Kentucky bluegrass, and fine fescues in quadrats placed along transects were recorded and compared to other cover such as herbaceous dicots and bare soil in 2005 and 2007. Turfgrasses at both courses were unable to maintain monocultures. All turfgrasses were nearly absent from Matheson Greens Golf Course 5 yr after maintenance operations ceased. At the Four Winds Golf Course site, creeping bentgrass comprised less than 25% cover on former putting greens by 2007, and was rarely found outside of the former putting green areas. Kentucky bluegrass cover ranged from 5 to 75% on the former fairways. Herbaceous dicots usually dominated the former turf areas at both sites, and included noxious weeds such as Canada thistle and invasive weeds such as spotted knapweed.

Nomenclature: Canada thistle, Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. CIAR4; creeping bentgrass, Agrostis stolonifera L. AGSST; fine-leaf fescues, Festuca spp.; Kentucky bluegrass, Poa pratensis L. POPR; spotted knapweed, Centaurea stoebe L. ssp. micranthos (Gugler) Hayek CEBI2.

Mark A. Garrison, John C. Stier, John N. Rogers, and Alec R. Kowalewski "Cool-Season Turfgrass Survival on Two Former Golf Courses in Michigan," Invasive Plant Science and Management 2(4), 396-403, (1 October 2009).
Received: 22 December 2008; Accepted: 1 July 2009; Published: 1 October 2009

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