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1 April 2016 Cattle Grazing Effects on Phragmites australis in Nebraska
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Phragmites australis (common reed) is one of the most widely distributed flowering plants in North America. The introduced lineage occurs in wetland and riparian areas covering a range of climatic types. In Nebraska, an abundance of livestock could help to reduce P. australis with proper timing and grazing intensities. In 2011, a 3-yr study was initiated to evaluate targeted cattle grazing and herbicide effects and the nutritive value of this species. Treatments included a single application of imazapyr (Habitat®, BASF Corporation, Research Triangle Park, NC) herbicide applied in the first year, grazing, and a control. Grazing was applied for up to five consecutive days in June and August 2011 and 2012 and in June 2013. Stem density, height, and biomass of P. australis were determined before each grazing period and in 2014. Diet samples were collected from rumenally fistulated steers each grazing period. Imazapyr provided 100% control of P. australis; however, re-establishment began 2 yr posttreatment. Grazing significantly reduced pregrazing P. australis biomass in the second and third growing season (P < 0.05). Stem density and height in the grazed treatment was similar to the control through 2012; however, in 2013 and 2014, control stem density was 1.5 times greater and height was 1.4 times that of the grazed treatment. Crude protein content of diet samples was greater in 2011 (16.8%) compared with 2012 (14.3%, P < 0.05). In vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of diet samples (45.4%) was not affected by year or month (P > 0.05). The relatively low IVDMD suggests that some form of energy supplementation would be needed to create a better nutritional balance. The cumulative effect of grazing does have the potential to reduce P. australis populations, but other methods would have to be used for greater control and site restoration.

Nomenclature: Common reed, Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. PHRCO.

Management Implications: Integrated management is important to control invasive plant species effectively. Reliance on a single technique can lead to poor containment, a failed eradication effort, and re-establishment of the target species over the long term. Natural areas can be challenging to implement integrated approaches effectively because of inaccessibility issues for machinery and lack of available biocontrol agents. By investigating previously untested techniques, the potential for implementing integrated management in an existing system could be high.

Targeted cattle grazing and herbicides can reduce the density and growth of common reed [Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.], which is a widely established invasive plant species in wetlands and riparian areas. To date, no biocontrol agent has been identified or released for P. australis. The presence of cattle in pastures and meadows adjacent to riparian areas infested with P. australis could be combined with herbicides for an integrated management approach.

We found that cattle effectively reduced stem density and height of P. australis over a 3-yr period. A single herbicide application was more effective than grazing. Although crude protein content of P. australis was adequate for most livestock classes, in vitro dry matter digestibility was relatively low, suggesting that some form of energy supplementation would be

© 2016 Weed Science Society of America
Jerry D. Volesky, Stephen L. Young, and Karla H. Jenkins "Cattle Grazing Effects on Phragmites australis in Nebraska," Invasive Plant Science and Management 9(2), 121-127, (1 April 2016).
Received: 28 December 2015; Accepted: 1 April 2016; Published: 1 April 2016

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