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23 September 2021 Integrative taxonomy reveals an even greater diversity within the speciose genus Phyllodistomum (Platyhelminthes : Trematoda : Gorgoderidae), parasitic in the urinary bladder of Middle American freshwater fishes, with descriptions of five new species
Carlos D. Pinacho-Pinacho, Ana L. Sereno-Uribe, Jesús S. Hernández-Orts, Martín García-Varela, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce de León
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Abstract

Phyllodistomum is one of the most species-rich genera of parasitic platyhelminths, with 120 species described worldwide; they infect the urinary bladder of marine and freshwater fishes. As the number of new species within the genus has increased, morphological conservatism, and the lack of reliable diagnostic traits make the separation of species a challenging task. The increase of genetic data for Phyllodistomum species has permitted the use of an integrative taxonomy approach as a framework for species discovery and delimitation. DNA sequences (28S rRNA and COI mtDNA) were obtained from individuals of Phyllodistomum sampled in 29 locations across Middle America, and used in combination with morphology, host association and geographic distribution to uncover five new congeneric species. Morphologically, the new species are relatively similar; there are no unique morphological traits to readily distinguish them. We first investigated species boundaries through phylogenetic analyses of the independent and concatenated datasets; analyses recognised five candidate species showing reciprocal monophyly and strong clade support, particularly for COI data. The interspecific 28S rRNA and COI sequence divergence among the new species from 0.4 to 18.4% and from 5.1 to 27% respectively. These results were further validated by a Bayesian species delimitation approach. The five new species are well supported by molecular data used in combination with other sources of information such as host association and geographical distribution and are described herein as Phyllodistomum romualdae sp. nov., P. virmantasi sp. nov., P. isabelae sp. nov., P. scotti sp. nov., and P. simonae sp. nov.

© CSIRO 2021
Carlos D. Pinacho-Pinacho, Ana L. Sereno-Uribe, Jesús S. Hernández-Orts, Martín García-Varela, and Gerardo Pérez-Ponce de León "Integrative taxonomy reveals an even greater diversity within the speciose genus Phyllodistomum (Platyhelminthes : Trematoda : Gorgoderidae), parasitic in the urinary bladder of Middle American freshwater fishes, with descriptions of five new species," Invertebrate Systematics 35(7), 754-775, (23 September 2021). https://doi.org/10.1071/IS21007
Received: 2 February 2021; Accepted: 3 April 2021; Published: 23 September 2021
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KEYWORDS
28S rRNA
Bayesian phylogenetics and phylogeography
COI
Gorgoderidae
Integrative taxonomy
Phyllodistomum
Platyhelminthes
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