Managing large open wounds in birds is challenging because of the limited amount of skin and the difficulties associated with bandaging. New techniques involving the use of skin flaps, autografts, and extracellular matrix grafts are emerging to the forefront of wound management as viable options in avian patients. Understanding the anatomy of the avian integument is important when considering the use of one of these forms of reconstruction as a wound management technique in birds. Here we review the use of skin grafts and flaps in avian patients in relation to the anatomy of the avian integumentary.
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Vol. 17 • No. 2