Translator Disclaimer
1 December 2013 Testicular Biopsy in Psittacine Birds (Psittaciformes): Comparative Evaluation of Testicular Reproductive Status by Endoscopic, Histologic, and Cytologic Examination
Author Affiliations +
Abstract

Knowledge of the reproductive cycle of male parrots is important for examining the male genital tract and for successful breeding, especially of endangered species. To evaluate different diagnostic methods and criteria concerning the classification of reproductive stages, we examined 20 testicular samples obtained at necropsy in psittacine birds of different species and testicular biopsy samples collected from 9 cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and 7 rose-ringed parakeets (Psittacula krameri) by endoscopy 4 times over a 12-month period. The testicular reproductive status was assessed histologically and then compared with the macroscopic appearance of the testicles and cytologic results. The histologic examination was nondiagnostic in 19 of 59 testicular biopsy samples. By contrast, the cytologic preparations were diagnostic in 57 of 59 biopsy samples. The results of the cytologic examination coincided with the histologic results in 34 of 38 biopsy samples and 18 of 20 necropsy samples. Macroscopic parameters displayed some differences between reproductive stages but provided an unreliable indication of the reproductive status. These results suggest that microscopic examination of a testicular biopsy sample is a reliable method for evaluating the reproductive status of male parrots and is preferable to the macroscopic evaluation of the testicle. Cytologic examination provides fast preliminary results, even when the histologic preparation is not sufficient for evaluation, but results may be erroneous. Thus, a combination of histologic and cytologic examination is recommended for evaluating testicular reproductive status.

Maria Hänse, Maria-Elisabeth Krautwald-Junghanns, Susanne Reitemeier, Almuth Einspanier, and Volker Schmidt "Testicular Biopsy in Psittacine Birds (Psittaciformes): Comparative Evaluation of Testicular Reproductive Status by Endoscopic, Histologic, and Cytologic Examination," Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 27(4), 247-257, (1 December 2013). https://doi.org/10.1647/2012-013
Published: 1 December 2013
JOURNAL ARTICLE
11 PAGES


SHARE
ARTICLE IMPACT
RIGHTS & PERMISSIONS
Get copyright permission
Back to Top