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1 December 2014 Antemortem Diagnosis and Successful Treatment of Pulmonary Candidiasis in a Sun Conure (Aratinga solstitialis)
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An adult male sun conure (Aratinga solstitialis) was evaluated because of lethargy, ruffled feathers, and decreased appetite. Physical examination revealed hypothermia, dehydration, dyspnea, and crop distention. Results of a complete blood cell count revealed a marked inflammatory leukogram, and cytologic examination of a crop swab sample identified gram-negative bacilli and occasional yeast organisms. Radiographs demonstrated an opaque, ill-defined, soft tissue structure in the caudal coelom just cranial to the renogonadal silhouette, loss of serosal detail, and splenomegaly. Endoscopic examination revealed a pale, granuloma-like structure within the caudal aspect of the left lung, splenomegaly, and an enlarged proventriculus. Intraoperative cytologic examination of a biopsy sample of the lesion demonstrated yeast organisms, and a subsequent culture of the biopsy sample revealed Candida albicans. The bird was treated intraoperatively with intralesional amphotericin B. Postoperative treatment consisted of meloxicam, trimethoprim sulfa, amphotericin B by nebulization, and systemic itraconazole and fluconazole. The bird made a complete recovery, was discontinued from all medications, and has remained asymptomatic for 6 months. Although rare, pulmonary candidiasis should be on the list of differential diagnoses for any respiratory infection in birds. Endoscopic biopsy, cytology, and fungal culture were valuable in making the diagnosis.

Laila M. Proença, Jörg Mayer, Rodney Schnellbacher, Susan Sanchez, Chien-Tsun Huang, Holly Brown, David Jiménez, Dainna Stelmach, and Stephen J. Divers "Antemortem Diagnosis and Successful Treatment of Pulmonary Candidiasis in a Sun Conure (Aratinga solstitialis)," Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 28(4), 316-321, (1 December 2014).
Published: 1 December 2014

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