A non-albicans Candida species was identified in 6 birds exhibiting clinical signs associated with gastrointestinal disease. The clinical disease signs noted in these 6 birds included diarrhea, regurgitation, and melena, and were considered concurrent or identified secondary to other comorbidities. Candida glabrata was identified in a yellow-naped Amazon parrot (Amazona auropalliata), a ring-necked dove (Streptopelia capicola), a blue-and-gold macaw (Ara ararauna), and 2 cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus). Candida krusei was identified in a white-crowned parrot (Pionus senilis). Fungal culture and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry identification was correlated with results of fecal and/or crop Gram's stains, and DNA sequencing was used in one case. Three cases resolved after treatment, 2 birds died, and 1 was lost to follow-up. Non-albicans Candida infections are an emerging issue in human health care and are known to have an increased resistance to antifungal drugs. Similar to Candida albicans, these non-albicans Candida species are often identified in patients that have a history of prior antibiotic exposure. Recent data in human medicine describe a shift in species distribution away from C albicans dominance and toward other species, including C glabrata and C krusei. Both species are considered normal flora within the human and bird mycobiota and may emerge to cause disease, especially when the normal gastrointestinal environment has been disrupted.
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