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At present, diode technology has been widely used in the lighting demand of all walks of life, but the external quantum efficiency of ordinary LED is still low, so it is urgent to improve the external quantum efficiency of LED. Based on this, this paper first analyzes the structure and preparation method of photonic crystal, then studies the way to improve the luminous efficiency of GaN based LED based on photonic crystal, and finally gives the result analysis of improving the luminous efficiency of marine semiconductor GaN based LED based on conventional technology.