DIPOVA, N and OKUDAN, E.S., 2011. Sea Caves, Flank Margin Caves and Tufa Caves Observed on Antalya Coastal Cliffs. In: Micallef, A. (ed.), MCRR3-2010 Conference Proceedings, Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue, No. 61, pp. 382–386. Grosseto, Tuscany, Italy, ISSN 0749-0208.
The caves on Antalya cliffs are of three origin; sea caves, tufa caves and flank margin caves. Sea caves are formed due to wave action on weak parts of the rock. Because the rocks of the Antalya cliffs are heterogeneous and strength varies in a wide range, weak parts of the cliffs are susceptible to cave formation. Tufa caves occurred as blind holes behind tufa curtains which deposited on tufa cascade environment of deposition. The obvious distinguishing features of tufa caves are primary sedimentary structures instead of corrosion morphologies. The flank margin caves occurred due to mixing corrosion at sea and groundwater interface. In this study more attention has been paid on porosity development and related cave formation due to mixing corrosion. Mixing corrosion is a process in which mixed water dissolves calcium carbonate rock, where groundwater and sea water interfere. Cavities which occur in this process can join together and form big chambers. When rock load on this chambers exceeds rocks strength, the roof may collapse and fall into the chamber. This fallen block is also subject to further dissolution resulting in enlargement of the cave. Entrances of the caves on the cliffs are concentrated between present sea level and 5 m below this level. Similarly, on the sea level caves depth of the caves is around 5 m. Starting from a time of constant sea level in the past, and following sea level rise, mixing corrosion and flank margin cave development should have been continued.