Stanley, J.-D. and Corwin, K.A., 2013. Measuring strata thicknesses in cores to assess recent sediment compaction and subsidence of Egypt's Nile Delta coastal margin.
Coastal flood risk in California is concentrated around urbanized embayments that are protected by infrastructure, such as levees, pumps, and flood walls, which pose a challenge to accurate flood prediction. A capability to predict coastal urban flooding at the parcel-scale (individual home or street) from high ocean levels (extreme high tides) is shown here by coupling a regional ocean forecasting system to an embayment-scale hydrodynamic model that incorporates detailed information about flood defenses. A unique flooding data set affords the rare opportunity to validate model predictions and allows us to identify model data that are essential for accurate forecasting. In particular, results show that flood defense height data are critical, and here, that information is supplied by a Real Time Kinematic Global Positioning System (RTK-GPS) survey, which yields ca. 1-cm, vertical root mean-squared error accuracy. Bathymetry surveys and aerial Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data characterizing the embayment also prove essential. Moreover, hydrodynamic modeling of flood inundation is shown to significantly improve on planar surface models, which overestimate inundation, particularly when manipulated to account for run-up in a simplistic way. This is attributed to the transient nature of overtopping flows and motivates the need for dynamic, spatially-distributed overtopping models that are tailored to the urban environment.