Darwish, K.; Smith, S.E.; Torab, M.; Monsef, H., and Hussein, O., 2017. Geomorphological changes along the Nile Delta coastline between 1945 and 2015 detected using satellite remote sensing and GIS.
This study describes geomorphologic changes along the Nile Delta coastline between 1945 and 2015. The study used topographic maps produced by the Egyptian Geological Survey in 1945 and Landsat satellite imagery taken between 1973 and 2015. The study found that the coastline's geomorphology greatly changed during this time period, especially at Damietta and Rosetta promontories, which were highly eroded after construction of the Aswan High Dam. Other stretches of the coastline also eroded, while some accretion occurred along the coastline down-drift from the promontories. The trend has been erosion of the beaches along the Nile promontories and accretion within the embayments between the promontories, resulting in an overall smoothing of the coastline. A portion of the eroded material has accreted in the form of spits or shoals near the inlets. The principal causal factors of coastline change were the impacts of the Aswan High Dam, sea-level rise, land subsidence, storms, and coastal protection devices. Efforts to stop erosion have had mixed results. Seawalls built along the city of Alexandria have maintained the coastline, while other coastal protection devices have not impeded erosion. Areas of cultivated land are highly susceptible to saltwater intrusion due to sea-level rise and the fact that much of the delta is at or near sea level.