Antunes do Carmo, J.S., 2018. Climate change, adaptation measures, and integrated coastal zone management: The new protection paradigm for the Portuguese coastal zone.
The efforts made to reduce the causes and mitigate the effects of global climate change continue to be critical in coastal areas. Many adaptation strategies implemented in coastal areas remain inadequate or ineffective. Using primarily events and interventions carried out along the Portuguese Atlantic coast, this work aims to show the paradigm shift that has occurred in Portugal since the last century (the 1990s) within the scope of the National Coastal Zone Management Strategy, taking into account the new guidelines for the implementation of coastal defence works. In this context, this paper also aims to assist coastal communities in carrying out operational coastal management by presenting and discussing management tools and primary options that should be considered in any adaptation programme that is to be implemented. Both nonstructural and structural measures are considered. Action plans, warning systems, emergency plans, and evacuation plans belong to the first category. Education and training are also considered, because they play a key role in the sustainability of coastal areas, especially in the coming generations. Structural measures are adaptation options that are designed to increase the safety of people and reduce risks. They are discussed and grouped into categories that include accommodation, protection, and retreat. Recent cases of successful accommodation and protection measures implemented along the Portuguese coast are also presented and discussed.