Coch, N.K., 2020. Inland damage from hurricanes. Journal of Coastal Research, 36(5), 1093–1105. Coconut Creek (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208.
Hurricanes result in severe wind and flooding along the coast. In general, their effects decrease in intensity inland. A less well-known feature is that some tropical storms can penetrate deep into the interior and cause severe freshwater flooding and wind destruction far from the coast. Exceptional inland damage can result from a number of meteorological and topographical scenarios. A deteriorating hurricane may merge with a moist extratropical low-pressure system, causing massive rainfall and river flooding (Tropical Storm Agnes in Pennsylvania, 1969). Winds can be channeled through passes on mountainous islands, like Kauai, to cause massive destruction on the lee side (Hurricane Iniki, 1992). Mountains can induce orographic precipitation that can result in massive debris flows (Hurricane Camille in Nelson County, Virginia, 1969). A decaying hurricane can have high convective centers inland that result in localized damage more typical of the hurricane at landfall (Hurricane Hugo, 1989). Finally, northern hurricanes can encounter polar air masses on their left sides as they move inland in the early fall (the New England Hurricane of 1938). While inland intensification is not common, it can occur under certain conditions as outlined in this paper. It is important to consider the possibility of inland intensification in every hurricane. Although the frequency is low, the consequences can be very high.