Black, K.P.; Baba, M.; Mathew, J.; Kurian, N.P., and Ilic, A., 2021. Guidelines to prepare India's coast for climate change. Journal of Coastal Research, 37(6), 1117–1129. Coconut Creek (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208.
India's first coastal protection guidelines for climate-change adaptation are described. The guidelines are holistic, recognizing the links between engineering, economic, physical, legal, social, environmental, and governmental intricacies. Robust protection solutions under climate change for millions of coastal residents may occur only when all these facets are improved within the complex regulatory, budgetary, and practical circumstances in India. Fifty-seven specific guidelines are presented in nine categories ranging from administrative to best-practice coastal protection. An “environmental softness ladder” that ranks coastal protection methods was developed as a scientific tool to guide policy development and project implementation. “Minimum floor level” for safe building was defined for each Indian coastal state using climate-change data produced for the study by Indian and international institutes. Beaches are more stable when the net sediment transport fluxes are close to neutral. “Grand schemes,” which make large-scale changes to the coast rather than continuing with piecemeal localised works, are recommended. With diverse dynamics over a long coastline in India, the 4-year study engaged an exceptionally large number of experts, agencies, government bodies, development partners, and other stakeholders.