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20 October 2021 Lattice Boltzmann Method for Simulations of Nozzle Flows in Coastal Environments
Peng Sun, Jiayu Zhou, Yahui Liu, Yunli Wang
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Sun, P.; Zhou, J.; Liu, Y., and Wang, Y., 2022. Lattice Boltzmann method for simulations of nozzle flows in coastal environments. Journal of Coastal Research, 38(1), 204–217. Coconut Creek (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208.

A better understanding of flow in pipes is considered to be critical for marine equipment because it helps to improve pipe performance related to vibration and structure problems. In this study, flow simulations were conducted using a large–eddy-simulation lattice Boltzmann method (LES-LBM) in a nozzle under various Reynolds numbers (Re) and the effect of the three-dimensional cubic lattice models D3Q15, D3Q19, and D3Q27 was examined. The results show that when Re < 200 (i.e. the asymmetry of the results calculated using lattice models D3Q15 and D3Q19 is below 5%) or when the lattice model D3Q27 is adopted, computational results can satisfy the requirement of rotational invariance. When 250 < Re < 300 or the flow suddenly traverses an abrupt expansion, the isotropy of lattice models D3Q15 and D3Q19 experience “collapse”. Defective planes cannot be used to completely solve complex flows and accurately transfer flow information. The resultant problems in the computational results include preference in the circumferential distribution of axial velocity and contraction effects of the phase portrait of axial and radial velocities. More complex flows (e.g., for situations with large Re or fluid traversing abrupt expansion) universally cause more significant lattice model effects, where nonlinear flow phenomena become dominant. Therefore, it is necessary to ensure that solutions in the entire computational domain are independent of lattice orientation during flow simulation using LBM. Overall, the results in this paper have important potential applications in predicting flow characteristics for pipe flows in marine structures such as marine risers in coastal environments and zones farther out to sea.

©Coastal Education and Research Foundation, Inc. 2022
Peng Sun, Jiayu Zhou, Yahui Liu, and Yunli Wang "Lattice Boltzmann Method for Simulations of Nozzle Flows in Coastal Environments," Journal of Coastal Research 38(1), 204-217, (20 October 2021).
Received: 23 July 2021; Accepted: 27 August 2021; Published: 20 October 2021

Lattice model
rotational invariance
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