Hu, Z.-H.; Zheng, Y.-X., and Hu, J.-J., 2022. Vietnam's maritime shipping ports: Using data-driven model analysis to determine connectivity and networking. Journal of Coastal Research, 38(3), 639–653. Coconut Creek (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208.
Vietnam is a typical coastal country bordering China, Laos, and Cambodia that possesses numerous seaborne transport facilities along the coast and two main river deltas (the Mekong River Delta and Red River Delta). Vietnam's ports and shipping flows were incorporated into a maritime network model. Vietnam's coast is on the Pacific Ocean, so the clustering method is a good way to formulate and investigate the maritime network. On the land side facing Laos and bordering China and Cambodia, Vietnam's maritime network can provide gateways for Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, and even China. Based on a big-data port and shipping system, this study focuses on the interaction between Vietnam's inland and coastal networks and the impact of throughflow as a sea gateway for Laos to connect the world. This analysis includes network connectivity, port positions and evolution, maritime port clusters, and regional deltas using clustering methods. The relationship between the maritime networks and the economic zones of Vietnam and its neighbors was also included in the current study. In summary, Vietnam can coordinate and optimize its seaside and landside networks to contribute to its trade and globally extend its maritime network to serve itself and its region.