Suh, S.W., 2016. Tidal asymmetry and energy variations due to sea-level rise in a macro tidal bay. In: Vila-Concejo, A.; Bruce, E.; Kennedy, D.M., and McCarroll, R.J. (eds.), Proceedings of the 14th International Coastal Symposium (Sydney, Australia). Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue, No. 75, pp. 765–769. Coconut Creek (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208.
Multiple coastal constructions at shallow depths in macro tidal environments, have resulted in remarkable coastal hydrodynamic alteration resulting in tidal asymmetry, energy flux, and dissipation. Consequently, the temporal aspect of sedimentation has changed abruptly and can eventually cause long-term variations. These anthropogenic alterations should be precisely investigated in relation to sea-level rise (SLR) in order to mitigate unexpected consequences. To understand alteration of tidal asymmetry due to SLR, gamma parameters that combine the traditional tidal amplitude ratio of M4/M2 and phase-lag difference were evaluated using the ADvanced CIRCulation (ADCIRC) model under finely resolved complex coastal geometry. Moreover, tidal energy flux and dissipation changes, in relation to tidal-flat area, were examined in Gyeonggi Bay, South Korea. As a result of SLR, spatial change in tidal asymmetry would occur; moreover, gamma parameter intensity, which shows flood dominance, would attenuate. M2 and M4 tidal energy flux would be lessened by SLR. For the energy dissipation, slight change appeared in M2, while lessening tidal flat area directly affected reduction in M4 based on SLR scenarios. Because a small change in tidal asymmetry could yield long-term morphological changes in the macro tidal environment, these alterations should be treated as important. A numerical restoration test removal of Siwha Dike, which behaved as a tipping point on tidal asymmetry, revealed that even a SLR scenario did not have significant effect if the natural shoreline persists. Thus, future studies should be focused on the importance of long-term impact on tidal alteration induced by coastal construction.