Chang, Y.S.; Huisman, B.; Boer, W., and Yoo, J., 2018. Hindcast of Long-term Shoreline Change due to Coastal Interventions at Namhangjin, Korea. In: Shim, J.-S.; Chun, I., and Lim, H.S. (eds.), Proceedings from the International Coastal Symposium (ICS) 2018 (Busan, Republic of Korea). Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue No. 85, pp. 201–205. Coconut Creek (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208.
Namhangjin beach is protected by multiple submerged breakwaters (SBWs) which were built to protect the ~4 km long sandy beach. A coastline model (UNIBEST) was used to investigate the long term effect of the SBW structures on the beach. The model computes long-term shoreline changes due to coastal structures as a result of the strong longshore sediment transport gradients at the structures. Bathymetry data of the shoreface and nearshore profiles were obtained from a field survey, while wave conditions from offshore WAM hindcast (Wave Modeling Group) were transformed towards the nearshore with the Delft3D SWAN modelling system. Local wave sheltering by the SBWs was included in the wave model. A situation with and without the SBWs was modelled. A rapid adjustment of the shoreline was observed in the model as a result of the wave conditions in the first two years. After that, the shoreline shape stabilized without significant changes both for the situation with and without SBWs. A smooth curved coastline shape was obtained in the model without SBWs, while the model with SBWs shows a similar overall shoreline shape with undulations of the shoreline shape behind the breakwaters. A similar undulating shoreline was observed in the Sept-2013 imagery at Namhangjin beach. The local accretion behind the SBWs may induce some erosion in the lee area of the SBWs, causing distortions of the shoreline shape. Most sediment accreted at the first SBW (i.e. the northern most SBW where alongshore transport from the North was trapped), while the coastline change rate gradually decreased towards the South. The effectiveness of the SBWs at the considered shoreline section for maintaining the shoreline is somewhat ambiguous as local areas with accretion or erosion are present with respect to the situation without the breakwaters. The results show that multiple SBWs need to be carefully designed to protect beaches as local distortions of the shoreline shape may be present directly downdrift from the structures.