The paired fronto-lateral gland pores and lattice organs (LO1, 2, 3, 4, and 5) of seven species of pedunculate barnacles belonging to two thoracican suborders, Heteralepadomorpha (family Heteralepadidae: Heteralepas sp. 1 and 2) and Lepadomorpha (families Poecilasmatidae: Poecilasma inaequilaterale and Octolasmis aymonini geryonophila; and Lepadidae: Lepas pacifica, Dosima fascicularis, and Conchoderma virgatum), were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). While the fronto-lateral gland pores exhibit slight variation among species, with only L. pacifica showing a different morphology, the variations in the arrangement of LOs are phylogenetically instructive. The lattice organs in the foregoing species correspond in general to the inferred advanced type (Type C), but the distinct keel in the pore field in P. inaequilaterale and L. pacifica is reminiscent of, but not necessarily identical with the less advanced Type B. The arrangement of the anterior LOs (1-2) is rhomboidal in the two heteralepadomorph species, the two poecilasmatid species, and two of the three lepadid species, as it is in all previously and presently known lepadomorph cyprids except D. fascicularis. In this last species, they are deployed linearly along the hinge line. A linear arrangement of all the lattice organs is presumably the plesiomorphic condition for the Thoracica; an obvious exception being the pattern seen in Ibla cumingi. The arrangement of the first two pairs of posterior LOs (3-4) in O. a. geryonophila and C. virgatum differs from that of all previously described Lepadomorpha in being rhomboidal rather than aligned linearly along the hinge line. This same arrangement of LOs 3 and 4 in the two heteralepadomorph species is notable since it is not known in other thoracicans. Our results concerning variation in lattice organs of the lower Pedunculata are more or less consistent with current phylogenetic speculations and genetic information that ally Heteralepadomorpha with Lepadomorpha. Significance of this variation at lower taxonomic levels is also evident in the two similar forms of Heteralepas.
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