More than 150 years after the first Europeans tackled Mount Kilimanjaro, the mammal fauna of Africa's highest mountain is still shrouded in mystery. This even applies to the common eland Taurotragus oryx, the world's second largest antelope, signs of which have been observed at altitudes between 3000 m and 5200 m, supplemented by a small number of sight records. Nobody has ever researched this ‘mountain eland’, or published photographs thereof. As a result, its biology and ecology are unknown and the following question remains unanswered, ‘Is this an insular, mountain-adapted population of eland, or only a temporary or seasonal migrant from the plains below?’. This literature review intends to stimulate interest in researching eland on Mount Kilimanjaro.