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1 July 1994 A Check-List of Indigenous Trees and Shrubs of Bura, Tana River District, Kenya With Malakote, Orma and Somali Names
F. N. Gachathi, S. G. Johansson, G. M. Alakoski-Johansson
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Abstract

This paper presents a case study on using an ethno-botanical approach for compiling plant taxonomy data. Introductory chapters deal with the study area in the semi-arid eastern part of Kenya, describing its physical characteristics and the various vegetation types. A check-list is presented of all woody plants found in the area. The plants are arranged alphabetically by their scientific names. Local vernacular names in the Malakote (also known as the Ilwana), Orma and Somali languages are included in the check-list. In addition, a separate list is presented with the vernacular names arranged alphabetically.

A CHECK-LIST OF INDIGENOUS TREES AND SHRUBS OF BURA, TANA RIVER DISTRICT, KENYA WITH MALAKOTE, ORMA AND SOMALI NAMESF.N. GachathiKenya Forestry Research InstituteP.O. Box 20412, Nairobi, KenyaS.G. Johansson⟨sup⟩1⟨/sup⟩, G.M. Alakoski-JohanssonUniversity of Helsinki, Department of Forest EcologyViikin Koetila 20, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, FinlandABSTRACTThis paper presents a case study on using an ethno-botanical approach for compiling plant taxonomy data. Introductory chapters deal with the study area in the semi-arid eastern part of Kenya, describing its physical characteristics and the various vegetation types. A checklist is presented of all woody plants found in the area. The plants are arranged alphabetically by their scientific names. Local vernacular names in the Malakote (also known as the Ilwana), Orma and Somali languages are included in the check-list. In addition, a separate list is presented with the vernacular names arranged alphabetically.INTRODUCTIONBackground and aim of the check-listThe identification of and communication on indigenous trees is often a problem. Professional taxonomists deal with the scientific names of plants, foresters mostly need to know a more narrow range of plants, whereas the local population often have considerable knowledge on both the identification and uses of plants (see e.g. Riley & Brokensha, 1988; Stiles & Kassam 1991) but usually only in their own language.This study was conducted under the Bura Forestry Research Project implemented jointly by the Kenya Forestry Research Institute (KEFRI) and the University of Helsinki. The project formed part of the Bura Fuelwood Project. The aim of the project was to provide trees for fuel and other needs for the recently settled population of the Bura Irrigation and Settlement Project. In addition to research within the irrigation scheme, it soon became apparent that there was a need to study also the natural vegetation of the area.⟨sup⟩1⟨/sup⟩Present address: East Usambara Catchment Forest Project, Box 5869 Tanga, TanzaniaIn Bura the difficulties to study the indigenous forest were realised in 1984, when permanent sample plots were established in the riverine forest to monitor the effects of the increasing human population. While the local people could name the trees in the forest often down to subspecies level, the forestry officers found it difficult to connect the local names with certainty to their scientific equivalents using the only available book, Kenya Trees and Shrubs (Dale & Greenway, 1961). The project also initiated collection of indigenous tree seeds jointly with the World Food Programme. Due to the diversity of the species in the lower Tana floodplain, and the positive response to the programme mainly by the drought-affected Orma pastoralists, the forestry project in Bura acquired a large collection of seeds but with the local names as the only available reference. Since the seed alone could not be used conclusively to identify trees and since neither the Orma nor the Malakote (also known as the Ilwana) are represented in the vernacular names of Dale & Greenway (1961), the compilation of a comprehensive check-list of woody plants was initiated.The aim was to compile a check-list to facilitate communication between the foresters and the local population in forestry activities. The check-list would provide a basis for further studies of the indigenous trees and shrubs and create an avenue for non-botanists to identify trees in Bura and adjoining areas. It would also facilitate administrators and foresters to address people in the area on subjects concerning trees in a language that the people understand.The local populationTraditionally the area has been inhabited by pastoralists in the bushland and agriculturists living along the Tana River. The indigenous peoples in the area are the semi-nomadic Cushitic-speaking Orma, including an Orma sub-group Wardei, and the sedentary agriculturists, Malakote (or Ilwana), belonging to the bantu-speaking group. Somali groups also frequent the area, especially during the dry season and due to recent development schemes. The increasing Somali presence in Bura made it necessary to include also the Somali vernacular names in this study.The Malakote, who number between 7,000 (Arap Bor, 1986, pers. comm.; Mwaura, 1988, pers. comm.) and 15,000 (Hughes, 1985) are living on the floodbanks of Tana River, from Garissa in the north to Masabubu, near Hola in the south. Their main crops are maize, rice, bananas and a variety of vegetables. Important is also fish and honey, both as food and commodities for earning cash. The raw material for most household goods, house construction, tools, weapons and fishing and trapping equipment has been collected from the forest.The Orma belong to the Eastern Cushitic speaking peoples of the Oromo language group (Ensminger, 1984; Spear, 1981) originating from southern Ethiopia. The Orma, numbering today about 30,000 people (Kelly, undated), are living in the savanna area, mainly in Tana River District. The Orma are divided into three sub-groups corresponding geographically with the north-south gradient of ecological zones; between Garissa in the north and Tarasa in the south. This particular study is concerned with the northern-most group, the Hirimani Orma.The Orma keep cattle, goats, sheep as well as some donkeys mainly for transport, and a few camels. Occasional subsistence agriculture is also practised. The animals as well as their products, farming and trade in small scale are all important for the subsistence of Orma peoples (Ensminger, 1984). Most of the material culture is made of raw material from the woody vegetation: milk and water containers, house building materials, dyes, preservatives etc.Although Orma and Malakote peoples have a different mode of living and are of different origin, there has been interaction between the peoples throughout history. This is reflected in agreements on where Orma cattle can be watered along the river or in exchange of goods, such as milk, grains, animals, or in transport assistance between the Orma and Malakote. This is also manifested in loan words in both languages, for example when naming trees.The study areaThe study area is located in Bura, Tana River District, Kenya just south of the equator at 1°06' S and 39°56' E about 100 m above sea level (fig. 1). According to the agro-meteorological classification Bura belongs to Zone VII, which has the lowest production potential and is suitable only for nomadic pastoralism (Sombroek et al., 1982). Meteorological data has been collected at the Bura Irrigation and Settlement Project since 1983. Rainfall is bimodal, low and erratic. Mean annual rainfall (1983-1992) was 372 mm/year. Mean monthly maximum temperatures were 33.4°C and mean minimum 22.5°C. Mean potential evaporation (class A pan) was 2,336 mm/year (Otsamo et al., 1993).Geologically the area belongs to alluvial fan plains, which have been remodelled under fluviatile conditions and is part of the sedimentary basins of eastern Kenya (Muchena, 1987). Geomorphologically the area can be divided into a floodplain along the Tana River and the ephemeral streams, consisting of young alluvial soils, and a plain consisting of old alluvial soils. The soils are developed on sediments from undifferentiated basement system rocks (Sombroek et al., 1982). Major soils of the old alluvium are aridisols and vertisols. The young alluvium is characterised by entisols. The plain has very gentle primarily west-east slopes, with gradients from 1-3%. The gradient of the north-south slope is less than 1%(Muchena, 1987).VegetationThe overall natural vegetation in Bura is very sparse except near the river where tall evergreen forest is sustained. The vegetation consists of thorny bushland or wooded grassland of varying density and species composition. The predominant vegetation type is Acacia-Commiphora bushland (Pratt et al., 1966). The ground cover usually consists of tufted grass or the salt-resistant shrub Salsola dendroides. There are, however, distinct differences in vegetation between the various physiographic dryland units.Several attempts have been presented to classify the vegetation of the area. A total of ten different associations with three additional sub-categories were identified during a feasibility study on the irrigation potential of the Lower Tana Basin (FAO, 1967). In another study (FAO, 1973, cited in Allaway, 1979), six major vegetation types were identified.Classifications of the floodplain area, including the riverine forest have been presented in studies by Allaway (1979), Homewood (1978), Hughes (1985) and Marsh (1976). Hughes (1985) distinguished five major forest types with two additional sub-types in her study on the ecology of the Tana River floodplain forest. These classifications are, however, primarily botanical and for scientific use rather than providing suitable entities for practical management and land use classification.The riverine forest has considerable conservation value. Many of the trees are those typical to riverine and ground water habitats, which primarily depend on floods and seepage from the river (Marsh, 1978). Populus ilicifolia, commonly known as the Tana River Poplar, is an endemic riparian tree occurring in small patches along the Tana, Athi and Ewaso-Nyiro river systems (Dale & Greenway, 1961). It is classified as endangered by FAO (1986), and the World Conservation Union (IUCN, 1978). Both subspecies of Acacia tortilis occurring in Bura are included on the list of endangered tree and shrub species by FAO (1986). Similarly species of fauna, such as the Tana Mangabey (Cercocebus galeritus galeritus) and the Tana River Red Colobus (Colobus badius rufomitratus) have been rated as endangered and rare (IUCN, 1978).METHODSThe field work was conducted during two periods. The first botanical survey was made in April-May 1986, and the second one from November 1986 to March 1987.The vernacular tree names were further counter-checked in Bura in January-February 1988.Figure 1. Tana River Basin showing selected development schemes (from Hughes, 1987)First botanical surveyA preliminary check-list, covering about 130 indigenous species, was compiled during the long rains in April-May 1986 (Gachathi, 1986). The purpose was to compile a baseline list of indigenous woody species for the area. The first survey made extensive use of scientific species identification of earlier botanical work in the Bura area by FAO (1967, 1973),Andrews et al. (1975), Allaway (1979), Homewood (1978), Marsh (1978) and Hughes (1985). The vernacular names, which were used to identify trees in the sample plots in 1984, were also utilised. The survey was jointly conducted by a research team from KEFRI and the Bura Forestry Research Project, together with a group of local people, who represented the main ethnic groups traditionally living in the Bura area (appendix 1).The botanical samples were identified at the East African Herbarium in Nairobi. Local names were collected during the field work. The vernacular names in the preliminary check-list were tabulated during the taxonomic identification at the herbarium, using the information from the field work and that of the herbarium. The preliminary list (Gachathi, 1986) included a section with scientific plant names, with different vernacular equivalents, including Borana, Malakote, Orma, Pokomo, Somali and occasionally English, Kamba and Swahili plant names. It also included sections with Borana and Pokomo plant names and their scientific equivalents, compiled from the records of the East African Herbarium. These names covered primarily the indigenous trees, shrubs and woody climbers. A few perennial herbs were also included due to their conspicuousness, abundance or usefulness in the economy of the local people.Second botanical surveyA second survey was conducted from November 1986 to March 1987 in connection with a follow-up study on the traditional uses of the indigenous trees and shrubs in the Bura area. During this study both the methodology and objectives were more specific, based on the experience from the first botanical survey. The study on the traditional uses applied a range of methods to finalise the check-list and to compile the baseline information on the uses of plants (table 1 and appendix 1).All the local plant names were verified and counter-checked by specimen. The Malakote and Orma plant names were collected and confirmed by members of their respective ethnic groups. The Somali names were collected primarily with the help of one member of the research group, who was a Somali-speaking Orma-Wardei. These names have not been checked by a true Somali. Although Somali is a written language the names were phonetically transcribed and the spellings used are purely the authors' work. The authors relied largely on the card index at the East African Herbarium, where Somali plant names mostly from the North-Eastern Province of Kenya are represented. Imperfection of spellings in this case cannot be ruled out. These names, however, should serve the purpose of the check-list.In February 1987, four school certificate leavers were employed to conduct interviews on plant uses in the villages in the Bura area (appendix 1). Another aim was to verify the check-list simultaneously. The vernacular names were further checked by the Chief of Chewele Location and the headmaster of Tune Primary School together with a group of elders.Cooperation with the local administrationDuring the entire period considerable support was given by the District Officers of Buraand the Chiefs of Bura, Nanighi and Chewele Locations respectively. The research team addressed six meetings in Bura and Chewele Locations. The aim of these were to:(1) Capture any additional tree names that could have been omitted during the botanical surveys, and(2) Discuss and create an awareness of the deteriorating environment and the disappearance of threatened tree species in the riverine forest in particular.The venues were arranged so that representatives of both the Malakote and the Orma peoples could participate. In addition to the local villagers Chiefs, Assistant Chiefs, Headmen, political leaders, leaders of women's groups and elders were present at the meetings. They were scheduled as follows:DateVenueLocation06/11/1986Bisik DeraBura10/11/1986MetiBura21/11/1986Shika-adabuChewele26/11/1986CheweleChewele29/11/1986Bridge-siteChewele17/02/1987TuneCheweleThere was an immediate response on the first objective, and elders volunteered to correct the existing names or contribute new ones. A summary of the methods used during the study is presented in table 1.Table 1. Methodologies used in the studyScopeMethodInformantsLocationScientific Identification of plantsIdentificationTaxonomistField EA HerbariumCollection of specimenResearch groupFieldLocal Identification of plantsIdentificationResearch groupFieldInterviewsResearch groupOfficeInformationVillage meetingsVillagersVillagesCounter CheckingInterviewsResearch groupOfficeInterviewsVillagersVillagesRESULTSVegetation classificationDuring the forestry research work in Bura the indigenous forest was tentatively divided into three vegetation types. The present study further confirmed this classification as a practical management tool. Three broad types were distinguished: riverine forest, transitional zone (between the riverine forest and the dry bushland) and dry bushland (including the ephemeral streams).Riverine forestThe riverine forest is mainly evergreen and extends for approximately 1-3 km on both sides of the river. The high canopy species in the riverine forest include Acacia elatior ssp elatior, A. robusta (A. clavigera), Trichilia emetica (T. roka), Populus ilicifolia, Newtonia hildebrandtii and Diospyros mespiliformis. The middle canopy layer consists of Spirostachys venenifera, Kigelia africana (K. aethiopum), Tamarindus indica, Mimusops fruticosa, Sorindeia madagascariensis and Ficus sycomorus. The ground cover is dominated by shrubs and woody climbers. These include Hippocratea africana, Combretum paniculatum, Harrisonia abyssinica, Capparis tomentosa, Thespesia danis, Diospyros abyssinica, Lawsonia inermis and Rinorea elliptica.Table 2. Frequency of genera represented by more than one species.Species per genusGenus (number of species in brackets)> 10Acacia (16)6-10Commiphora (9), Grewia (8)5Cadaba, Euphorbia, Terminalia4Combretum, Cordia, Ficus, Indigofera, Maerua3Capparis, Jatropa2Albizia, Aloe, Anisotes, Balanites, Caesalpinia, Cassia, Cyperus, Diospyros, Dobera, Gardenia, Lannea, Maytenus, Momordica, Ocimum, Phragmites, Phyllanthus, Premna, Sansevieria, Solanum, SterculiaTable 3. Frequency of species per family.Species per familyFamilies (number of species in brackets)>21Euphorbiaceae (21)16-20Mimosaceae (20), Capparaceae (14)11-15Burseraceae (11)6-10Combretaceae (9), Apocynaceae (8), Caesalpiniaceae(8), Papilionaceae (8), Rubiaceae (8), Tiliaceae (8)5Amaranthaceae, Boraginaceae, Celastraceae4Anacardiaceae, Compositae, Malvaceae, Moraceae, Salvadoraceae, Sapindaceae,3Acanthaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Ebenaceae, Gramineae, Liliaceae, Palmae, Pedaliaceae, Solanaceae, Verbenaceae,2Agavaceae, Balanitaceae, Bignoniaceae, Bombaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Cyperaceae, Labiatae, Meliaceae, Sapotaceae, Sterculiaceae, Vitaceae1Annonaceae, Aristolochiaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Dichapetalaceae, Erythroxylaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Flagellariaceae, Guttiferae, Hernandiaceae, Loganiaceae, Loranthaceae, Lythraceae, Meniapermaceae, Moringaceae, Olacaceae, Opiliaceae, Passifloraceae, Portulaceae, Rhamnaceae, Salicaceae, Simaroubaceae, Tamaricaceae, Typhaceae, ViolaceaeTransitional zoneAs one moves from the dry bushland towards the riverine forest the vegetation gradually gets denser and taller. The strip of land lying between the two main vegetation types is unique in that it consists of most of the species that are found in the two main zones. Characteristic species are Acacia tortilis, Dobera loranthifolia, Lawsonia inermis, Grewia plagiophylla and Terminalia brevipes.Dry bushlandThe bushland is dominated mainly by thorny shrubs with scattered tufted grasses and a few trees. It is in drought-dormant condition for much of the year, but leaves sprout immediately after or just before the onset of the rains. Characteristic shrubs areAcacia reficiens ssp misera, A. bussei, A. mellifera, Cadaba glandulosa, Commiphora candidula, C. campestris and Salsola dendroides. The few scattered trees include Acacia tortilis ssp raddiana, A. zanzibarica, Euphorbia robecchii, Salvadora persica, Dobera glabra and Platycelyphium voense. Most of the larger trees have a restricted distribution along the few ephemeral streams, where they form patches of small forests.Specific habitats in the dry bushland are those along the main ephemeral streams: the Hirimani, Walesa, Bilbil, Gelmadho and Tula. The dominant trees occurring along the streams are Acacia tortilis ssp raddiana, A. tortilis ssp spirocarpa, A. senegal var leiorhachis, Berchemia discolor (Phyllogeiton discolor), Hyphaene compressa (H. coriacea), Tamarindus indica and Terminalia prunioides. Salvadora persica and Dobera glabra are evergreen species and hence conspicuous during the dry season.Species identificationA total of 228 species, covering 64 families, were identified both from the riverine forest and the bushland by their scientific names. Malakote names were found for 167, Orma names for 190, and Somali names for 138 of the species. The results are presented in a check-list, which consists of two parts. In part one, all plants are arranged alphabetically according to their botanical names, which are as complete as possible. They include the authority, synonyms and family. The botanical name is followed by its local name equivalent in the Malakote, Orma and Somali languages. The vernacular names include the synonyms and distinct forms of pronunciation. All the local names are in capital letters throughout the check-list, and their corresponding languages are put in brackets immediately after them, abbreviated to their first character. Part two is composed of the vernacular plant names in Malakote, Orma and Somali, arranged in alphabetical order with their botanical equivalents. Synonyms and distinct forms of pronunciation appear as separate entries in part two of the list.Neither Malakote nor Orma is a written language. Thus the Malakote and Orma vernacular plant names where transcribed phonetically. However, although Somali is a written language, these names were also transcribed phonetically. Vernacular synonyms and distinct forms of pronunciation appear as separate entries in part two of the list.Families and generaThe frequency of families and genera of the plants included in the check-list is presented in tables 2 and 3. The specimens are deposited at the East African Herbarium in Nairobi, the Kenya Forestry Research Institute in Muguga and the Department of Forest Ecology, University of Helsinki, Finland.DISCUSSIONThe study confirmed the richness and accuracy of local knowledge in species identification. It also indicated, that by combining local vernacular plant identification with taxonomic expertise, botanical surveys can be conducted more cost-efficiently and comprehensively (e.g. Johansson et al., 1987; Gachathi, 1986). Local people, such as the Malakote and Orma, who depend on the forest resources for their living, can sometimes make distinctions more precisely than professional foresters or taxonomists (Johansson & Alakoski-Johansson, 1988). These distinctions are, apart from naming of species or subspecies, referred to specific morphological or phenological differences by the people themselves. The study provided a comprehensive list of woody plants but also revealed a wealth of local knowledge on plants and the environment. The knowledge on the uses of plants in Bura lead to another study, which covered plant uses and the role of woody plants in the two local ethnic societies (Alakoski-Johansson, unpublished). The study approach may also contribute to the identification of species which may be threatened and require protection measures or identification of in situ conservation areas (Gachathi, 1986).The collected vernacular names represent local peoples naming of plants. Specialists, such as herbalists and magicians, are known to have synonyms for commonly known names. In this study the focus was on everyday knowledge, due to the practical scope and orientation of the work. Thus the limited range of synonyms and distinct forms of pronunciation included in the list reflect this focus. The importance of the study was appreciated by the local people. The interest in local names was felt as an expression of regard of the local culture and triggered off proposals and discussions on the general need to preserve cultures under pressure. Many of these socio-cultural issues were covered more in depth in the study on tree uses (Alakoski-Johansson, unpublished).The scientific-vernacular check-list provides a common platform for communication between the outsiders or experts and the local community. It has also become increasingly clear that sustained management of forest resources without the involvement and consent of the people concerned is extremely difficult. A communication platform, such as this check-list, can be a valuable tool to a greater insight of the local role and use of forests.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSWe express our gratitude to Dr J.A. Odera, Director of KEFRI, and Professor Olavi Luukkanen, supervisor of the Bura Forestry Research Project at the University of Helsinki, for invaluable support to this work. We cannot forget the kindness and assistance of Messrs M.K. arap Bor, B.M. Kubo, F. Ngunjiri, J. Mulatya, and J. Gitonga. Prof. O. Luukkanen, and Dr H. Beentje of the East African Herbarium, Nairobi, read through and commented the original report. Ag. Prof. J. Kuusipalo and Vesa Kaarakka at the University of Helsinki read the manuscript and made a number of valuable comments.Many people have contributed in compiling this check-list, and it is difficult to acknowledge everybody. For those whose names do not appear here we express our general appreciation.REFERENCESAndrews, P., C.P. Groves & J.F.M. Home (1975). Ecology of the lower Tana River floodplain (Kenya). J EANHS & Nat. Mus. 151: 1-31.Allaway, J.D. (1979). Elephants and their interactions with people in the Tana River region of Kenya. PhD thesis, Cornell University.Dale, I.R. & P.J. Greenway (1961). Kenya Trees and Shrubs. Buchanan's Kenya Estates Ltd, Nairobi.Ensminger, J.E. (1984). Political economy among the pastoral Galole Orma: The effects of market integration. PhD thesis, Northwestern University.FAO (1967). Kenya: Survey of the irrigation potential of the lower Tana River Basin. FAO, Rome.FAO (1973). Rangeland surveys, Kenya: Range development in Tana River District. UNDP/FAO, AGP:SF/KEN 66/511, Working Paper 12. FAO, Rome.FAO (1986). Databook on endangered tree and shrub species and provenances. FAO Forestry Papers 77. FAO, Rome.Gachathi, F.N. (1986). A preliminary check-list of plants of the Lower Tana floodplain forest. Bura Forestry Research Project Working Paper No. 14, Kenya Forestry Research Institute and the University of Helsinki.Homewood, K.M. (1978). Ecology and the behaviour of the Tana Mangabey. PhD thesis, University of London.Hughes, F. (1985). The Tana River floodplain forest, Kenya, ecology and impact of development. PhD thesis, University of Cambridge.INCN (1978). Red Data Book, Vol. 1, Mammalia. INCN, Gland.Johansson, S.G., G.M. Alakoski-Johansson, O.M. Luukkanen, J. Mulatya & N. Gachathi (1987). Ethno-botanical approach to seed procurement; experience from Bura, Kenya. In: S.K. Kamra and R.D. Ayling (eds), Proceedings of the international symposium on forest seed problems in Africa, Report 7, Dept of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.Johansson, S.G. & G.M. Alakoski-Johansson (1988). Ethno-botanical research and rural development: experiences from the Bura Forestry research project. Silva Carelica 12: 263-269 [in Finnish].Kelly, H. (undated). Commercialisation, sedentarization, economic diversification and changing property relations among Orma pastoralists of Kenya: some possible target issues for future pastoral research. In: P.T.W. Baxter and R. Hogg (eds), Property, poverty and people: changing rights in property and problems of pastoral development. Dept of Social Anthropology and International Development Centre, University of Manchester.Marsh, C.W. (1976). A management plan for the Tana River Game Reserve. New York Zoological Society and University of Bristol.Marsh, C.W. (1978). Tree phenology in a gallery forest on the Tana River, Kenya. E. Afr. Agric. For. J. 43: 305-316.Muchena, F.N. (1987). Soils and irrigation of three areas in the lower Tana Region, Kenya. PhD thesis, Agricultural University, Wageningen.Otsamo, A., J. Laxén, S. Johansson, V. Kaarakka, J. Kuusipalo, O. Luukkanen & J.O. Maua (1993). Forestry Research in Bura, Kenya 1984-1993. Univ. Helsinki Tropic. Forest Rep. 8.Pratt, D.J., P.J. Greenway & M.D. Gwynne (1966). A Classification of East African rangeland, with an appendix on terminology. J. Appl. Ecol. 3: 369-382.Spear, T. (1981). Kenya's past. An introduction to historical method in Africa. Longman Studies in African History, London.Riley, B.W. & D. Brokensha (1988). The Mbere of Kenya (two volumes; Vol.1 Changing Rural Economy; Vol.II, Botanical Identities and Uses). University Press of America, Lanham, Maryland.Sombroek, W.G., H.M.H. Braun & B.J.A. van der Pouw (1982). Exploratory soil map and agro-ecological zone map of Kenya, 1980. Kenya Soil Survey, Exploratory Soil Survey Report no. E 1, Min. of Agriculture, Nairobi.Stiles, D. & A. Kassam (1991). An ethnobotanical study of the Gabra plant use in Marsabit District, Kenya. J. EANHS & Nat. Mus. 81 (198).Turrill, W.B. & E. Milne-Readhead (1952, continued). Flora of Tropical East Africa. Govt Bookshop, London.APPENDIX 1: Participants in the research groupParticipants in the first botanical survey (April-May 1986):⟨u⟩Participants⟨/u⟩⟨u⟩Institution or ethnic group ⟨/u⟩Project staffNorman Gachathi, MrKenya Forestry Research Institute (KEFRI)Stig Johansson, MrUniversity of Helsinki, Dept of Forest EcologyJackson Mulatya, MrKenya Forestry Research Institute (KEFRI)Felix Ngunjiri, MrBura Irrigation and Settlement Project (BISP)Local informantsMohamed Kallaf, MrOrma-WardeiHajibo Abdi Dido, MrsOrmaAbdureheman H. Halkano, MrOrmaBocha B. Dima, MrOrmaAlui K. Gheriba, MrMalakoteAwadhi Igu Nyagu, MrMalakoteParticipants in the second botanical survey (November 1986-March 1987):⟨u⟩Participants⟨/u⟩⟨u⟩Institution or ethnic group⟨/u⟩Project staffGunilla Alakoski-Johansson, MrsUniversity of Helsinki, Dept of Forest EcologyNorman Gachathi, MrKenya Forestry Research Institute (KEFRI)Local informantsMohamed Kallaf, MrOrma-WardeiHajibo Abdi Dido, MrsOrmaAbdureheman H. Halkano, MrOramBocha B. Dima, MrOrmaAlui K. Gheriba, MrMalakoteAwadhi Igu Nyagu, MrMalakoteInterviewers:⟨u⟩Interviewer⟨/u⟩⟨u⟩Ethnic group⟨/u⟩Saidi Baluku Diribo, MrMalakoteHussein Wario Dongol, MrOrmaHamisi Hassan Madawa, MrMalakoteMuktar Godhana Moti, MrOrmaAPPENDIX 2: Alphabetical listing of scientific namesAbrus precatorius L. (Papilionaceae): NANAIDHO (M); UMU-SHIMPIREA (O)Abutilon aff pannosum (Forssk.) Schlecht. (Malvaceae): HABAMBAL (O); BALAMBAL (S)Acacia bussei Sjöstedt (Mimosacea): GOLOCH (O); GOLLOL (S)Acacia elatior Brenan ssp elatior (Mimosaceae): MUUGA (M); BURA (O); BURRA (S)Acacia hamulosa Benth. (Mimosaceae): OSATARI (O); ETHAD (S)Acacia horrida (L.) Willd ssp benadirensis (Chiov.) Hillcoab & Brenan (Mimosaceae): CHACHANEH (O); SERMAN, pod HAGAGO (S)Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth. ssp mellifera (Mimosaceae): SAMPASA (M); HABALAKES (O); BIL-EL (S)Acacia nilotica (L.) Del. ssp subalata (Vatke) Brenan (Mimosaceae): CHALABDO (O); TUGER(S)Acacia nubica Benth. (Mimosaceae): WANGE (O); GUMURR (S)Acacia paolii Chiov. (Mimosaceae): CHYACHY ANE (M); CHACHANEH (O); JAJANEH (S)Acacia reficiens Wawra ssp misera (Vatke) Brenan (Mimosaceae): RHIGHA (M); RIGH (O); RIGH (S)Acacia robusta Burch. ssp usambarensis (Taub.) Brenan (= Acacia clavigera Mey ssp usambarensis (Taub.) Brenan) (Mimosaceae): MUUGA-FUWE (M); MUNYAGAT, MUNYANGAT (O)Acacia rovumae Olivo (Mimosaceae): MOGOGO (M); GAAJIR (O)Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. var leiorhachis Brenan (= Acacia circummarginata Chiov.) (Mimosaceae): BURA-DIMA (O); ETHAD-GHERI (S)Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. var senegal (Mimosaceae): SOBONAH (O); ETHAD (S)Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne ssp raddiana (Savi) Brenan (Mimosaceae): DADACHA, DADWOTA (M); DADACH, DADECH, young plants GUDIS (O); ABAKH (S)Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne ssp spirocarpa (A.Rich.) Brenan (Mimosaceae): DADACHA, DADWOT A (M); DABAS, DABASO (O); ABAKH (S)Acacia zanzibarica (S. Moore) Taub. var zanzibarica (Mimosaceae): MUWACHYU (M); WAACHU (O); FULAI (S)Acalypha sp (Euphorbiaceae): KIVUJA-MUDI (M)Achyranthes aspera L. (Amaranthaceae): DAKAJI-HOLA (O)Adansonia digitata L. (Bombacaceae): MUBUYU (M); YAK (O); YAK (S)Adenia globosa Engl. ssp globosa (Passifloraceae): OBBE (O); OBA (S)Adenium obesum (Forssk.) Roem. & Schult. (Apocynaceae): TULATA (M); MUK-FADJI (O); GOCHAN-GOL (S)Alafia caudata Stapf (Apocynaceae): WAKAMA (M)Albizia anthelmintica Brongn. (Mimosaceae): HABACHO, HABACHU (O); HABASHO (S)Albizia gummifera (J.F. Gmel.) C.A. Sm. (Mimosaceae): MOTEMWELO (M)Allophylus rubifolius (A. Rich.) Engl. (Sapindaceae): MWEZE-BANY A (M)Aloe ruspoliana Baker (Liliaceae): RAASAIYE (M); RAASA YE (O); DA-ARBULLOKH (S)Aloe sp (Liliaceae): HARGESA (M); HARGES (O); DA-AR (S)Ampelocissus africana (Lour.) Merr. (Vitaceae): MAKEKE (M)Anisotes tanensis C. Baden (Acanthaceae): TIRA (O)Anisotes ukambensis Lindau (Acanthaceae): TUTATU (O)Antidesma venosum Tul. (Euphorbiaceae): MUSIGISIGI (M)Aristolochia bracteolata Lam. (Aristolochiaceae): MOKABUKIYE (M); MUK-BUKIE (O)Arva lanata Juss. (Amaranthaceae): MOKAMUKEWA (M); MUK-SABO (O); FOODHADDAH(S)Asparagus africanus Lam. (Liliaceae): ERGAMSA (M); ERGAMS (O); ARJEH (S)Aspilia mossambicensis (Oliv.) Wild (Compositae): BAMBA (O); LUVADHIN-DURE (S)Azima tetracantha Lam. (Salvadoraceae): WAIGHO (M)Balanites pedicellaris Mildbr. & Schlecht. (Balanitaceae): MUBADANA (M); BADDAN (O); KULLAN(S)Balanites rotundifolia (Van Tiegh.) Blatter (= Balanites gillettii Cuf., Balanites orbicularis Sprague) (Balanitaceae): MUBADANA (M); BADDAN (O); KULLAN (S)Berchemia discolor (Klotzsch) Hemsl. (=Phyllogeiton discolor (Klotzsch) Herzog) (Rhamnaceae): MUJAJABHO, fruit JAJABHO (M); JAJAB (O); DEEN (S)Blepharispermum fruticosum Klatt & Schinz ssp lanceolatum Chiov. (Compositae ): KATE (O)Borassus aethiopum Mart. (Palmae): MURIFATE (M); MARAFA (O); MARDAFA (S)Boscia coriacea Pax (Capparaceae): KALAQACHA (M); KALKACH (O); KHALANGHAL (S)Boswellia neglecta S. Moore (=Boswellia hildebrandtii Engl.) (Burseraceae): DAKAR (O); MIRAFUR(S)Cadaba farinose Forssk. (Capparaceae): KALAQACHA (M); KALKACH-HARE (O); DUMEI (S)Cadaba farinosa Forssk. ssp farinosa (Capparaceae): KALAQACHA (M); KATEGURATI (O)Cadaba gillettii R.A. Grab. (Capparaceae): ALLAKAL (O)Cadaba glandulosa Forssk. (Capparaceae): TUK (O); TUKH (S)Cadaba ruspolii Gilg (Capparaceae): ILKABA TH (O); ILKABA TA (S)Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb. (Caesalpiniaceae): MUSADYEQA (M); SADEK (O)Caesalpinia trothae Harms ssp erlangeri (Harms) Brenan (Caesalpiniaceae): HAMARES (O); GORA (S)Calotropis procera (Ait.) Ait. f. (Asclepiadaceae): MOTY A-RUGHA, MOTYA-BHUBHA, MRHUGA (M); MUK-RHUGA (O)Calyptrotheca taitensis (Pax & Vatke) Brenan (Portulacaceae): DUJUME (O); DHOLOL (S)Capparis fascicularis DC. Var fascicularis (Capparaceae): GORA (O); GORA (S)Capparis sepiaria L. (Capparaceae): RHEMANGUZI (M); GORA (O); GORA (S)Capparis tomentosa Lam. (Capparaceae): GORA ZA JOVU, GORA-NYILO, NAMWALIKO (M)Caralluma russelliana (Brogn.) Cufod. (Asclepiadaceae): BUBUTOLE (M); MAT-BUTO (O); TURIN-BARBAR (S)Carissa edulis (Forssk.) Vabl (Apocynaceae): KAKA-MCHANGANI, MOKALAKALA (M)Carphalea glaucescens (Hiem) Verde. ssp glaucescens (=Dirichletia glaucescens Hiem) (Rubiaceae): DIRRI (O); BURBUR (S)Cassia afrofistula Brenan (Caesalpiniaceae): MUBARAKA (M)Cassia occidentalis L. (Caesalpiniaceae): JOLOKO-ZA-BHIZOKA (M)Cassine aquifolium Fiori (Celastraceae ): KALKACH (O)Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. (Bombacaceae): MUSUFI (M); MUK-SUFI (O)Cephalocroton cordofanus Hochst. (=Cephalocroton nudus Pax & K. Hoffm.) (Euphorbiaceae): KOSAIYE (M); KOSAIYE-REA (O); KOSAIYE-IRIAD (S)Cissus aphylla Chiov. (Vitaceae): GHAMA-KINUGI (M); HALAKU-AJO (O); CHABHI (S)Clerodendrum acerbianum (Vis.) Benth. & Hook. f. (Verbenaceae): KARHABELA (M); KARAPELA (O)Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels (Menispermaceae): NYAMILI (M)Combretum aculeatum Vent. (Combretaceae): DARSA (O)Combretum constrictum (Benth.) Laws. (Combretaceae): GHEREBHE (M); GHEREBE (O)Combretum hereroense Schinz (Combretaceae): KONKON (O); KOHKON (S)Combretum paniculatum Vent. (Combretaceae): KADOE (M)Commiphora africana (A. Rich.) Engl. (Burseraceae): KOMPER, KOMPERA (O); HAMMES-SAGARA(S)Commiphora boiviniana Engl. ssp holosericea Engl. (Burseraceae): DACKDO (O); DIBIRKH(S)Commiphora campestris Engl. (Burseraceae): KURO (O); KURO (S)Commiphora candidula Sprague (Burseraceae): WARHARHEBHO (M); WARAREB (O); DAMAJA(S)Commiphora confusa Vollesen sp nov ined (Burseraceae): KILCHACHO (O); HAJOLA (S)Commiphora paolii Chiov. (Burseraceae): HAGHARSU (M); HAGARSU (O); HAGAR (S)Commiphora rostrata Engl. (Burseraceae): CHONEH (M); CHANAH-UDESI, UDESI (O)Commiphora unilobata Gillett & Vollesen (Burseraceae): TOKOCHO (O)Commiphora sp nov 'P' (Burseraceae): HAMMES-ARBA (O); HOTHEI (S)Commiphora sp nov 'Q' (Burseraceae): CHONYA-BAAFUGHA (M); CHANAHABAFUNGA (O); SOBAGLAH (S)Cordia crenata Del. (Boraginaceae): MADER-WARABESA, MADER-WORABESA (O)Cordia goetzei Guerke (Boraginaceae): MUCHUCHA TA (M); MUCHUCHA TA (O); MARER-GIRGIR (S)Cordia ovalis DC. (Boraginaceae): ARABA (O); MARER-GIRGIR (S)Cordia sinensis Lam. (=Cordia gharaf (Forssk.) Archers) (Boraginaceae): Dry bushland: MADERA, MUTALYA-NAJA (M); MADER, MADERA (O); MARER (S); Riverine forest: MUTAALE, MUTLYA-CHANA (M); KOTE (O); MARER-KHOH (S)Cyathula coriacea Schinz (Amaranthaceae): DAGAAJI (M); DAKAJI (O); DAKAJI (S)Cynometra sp aff C. webberi Bak.f. (Caesalpiniaceae): MUPAKATA (M)Cyperus articulatus L. (Cyperaceae): KURIMO, KURRA (M); KURR (O)Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae): MAKANGAYA (M); DALADHU (O); DALADHU (S) Dalechampia scandens L. var cordofana Muell. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae): MULWABO (M); LALESA ARBA (O); ANANIA (S)Datura metel L. (Solanaceae): MOTYA-BHUBHA (M)Deinbollia borbonica Scheff. (Sapindaceae): MOTYA-IZIBA (M)Delonix elata (L.) Gamble (Caesalpiniaceae): SUKELE (M); SUKELE (O); LEBHI (S)Diospyros abyssinica (Hiem) F. White (Ebenaceae): MOTYA-MOWGI (M)Diospyros mespiliformis A. DC. (Ebenaceae): MOKOWLO (M); KOLATI-GURATI (O);KOLATI (S)Dobera glabra (Forssk.) Poir (Salvadoraceae): MOKOPA (M); GASHIR (O); GARAS (S)Dobera loranthifolia (Warb.) Harms (Salvadoraceae): MOKOPA (M); DENDE (O); GARAS (S)Drypetes natalensis (Harv.) Hutch. var leiogyna Brenan (Euphorbiaceae): MWADAMA (M)Ecbolium striatum Balf. f. (Acanthaceae): KIDHALAKA (M); KAULA (S)Echinochloa haploclada (Stapf) Stapf (Gramineae): MANYAMA WO (M); MELA (O)Ehretia sp (Boraginaceae): GOROMS-GARERO (O)Erythrina melanacantha Harms (=Erythrina rotundato-obovata Bak. f.) (Papilionaceae): NYALA-ZA-SIBA (M); WOLES (O); BURA (S)Erythrococca kirkii (Muell. Arg.) Prain (Euphorbiaceae): DAWA USHINGO (M)Erythroxylum emarginatum Thonn. (Erythroxylaceae): MOTYA-MWOQA (M)Euclea natalensis A. DC. ssp obovata F. White (=Euclea fructuosa Hiem) (Ebenaceae): MULUQISA (M); LUKISA (O)Euphorbia cryptospinosa Bally (Euphorbiaceae): DALITH-HOKO (O); DALUTHA (S)Euphorbia gossypina Pax var gossypina (Euphorbiaceae): DANA (M); DAALITH, DALITH (O); ANOL (S)Euphorbia grandicornis Goebel (Euphorbiaceae): KALAWILLE (O); KALAULA (S)Euphorbia robecchii Pax (Euphorbiaceae): HATHAMA (M); HADHAMA (O); DARKHEN(S)Euphorbia tirucalli L. (Euphorbiaceae): DANA (M); WADIDA (O); DANA (S)Ficus bussei Mildbr. & Burret (Moraceae): MUMBALAMBALE (M)Ficus capreaefolia Del. (Moraceae): LOJO (M); ARABA (O)Ficus sycomorus L. (Moraceae): MOKOYO (M); ODHA (O); BARDAH (S)Ficus sp (Moraceae): MUVUMA (M)Flagellaria guineensis Schumach. (Flagellariaceae): ITITOWKI (M); TOTOKE (O)Garcinia livingstonei T. Anders (Guttiferae): MCHICHOZI (M); DARISS (O); CHANFAROD (S)Gardenia fiorii Chiov. (Rubiaceae): KARO (O); KARRO (S)Gardenia volkensii K. Sch. (Rubiaceae): DAMBEL (O)Givotia gosai A.R. Smith (Euphorbiaceae): KOSAIYE (M); KOSAIYE (O); KOSAI (S)Grewia bicolor Juss. (Tiliaceae): HARORU, HARORU-MIYAA (O); DEBHI (S)Grewia densa K. Schum. (Tiliaceae): FAHFAH (M); HARORU, HARORU-MIY AA (O); BEBHI (S)Grewia lilacina K. Schum. (Tiliaceae): ORONKIO-GALA (O); DEKA-BONATI (S)Grewia plagiophylla K. Schum. (Tiliaceae): FAHFAH (M); HARORU-HADDA (O); DEBHI (S)Grewia stuhlmannii K. Schum. (Tiliaceae): FAHFAH-GEMA (M); HARORU, HARORUMIYAA (O); DEBHI (S)Grewia tembensis Fres. (Tiliaceae): DEKA-DUBRA (O); MURIE-BONATI (S)Grewia tenax (Forssk.) Fiori (Tiliaceae): DEKA (M); DEKA (O); DEKHA (S)Grewia villosa Willd. (Tiliaceae): OGHONDI (M); OGOMDI (O); KAMASHA (S)Gyrocarpus hababensis Chiov. var angustifolius Verde. (Hemandiaceae): KAWISA (O)Harrisonia abyssinica Olivo (Simaroubaceae): GORA (M); GORA (O); EDDIH-CHABEL (S)Hibiscus vitifolius L. (Malvaceae): HACHINI (O)Hildebrandtia sepalosa Rendle (Convolvulaceae): WOGHO (M); JIRMACH (O)Hippocratea africana (Willd.) Loes. (Celastraceae): MOW (M); GALE (O)Hunteria zeylanica Thw. var africana (K. Sch.) Pichon (Apocynaceae): MUDEENO (M); DANO(O)Hyphaene compressa H. Wendl. (=Hyphaene coriaceae Gaertn.) (Palmae): MOKOMA, young plants MEZI (M); KONE, young plants METI (O); BARR, young plants DABELL (S)Indigofera schimperi Jaub. & Spach var baukeana (Vatke) Gillett (Papilionaceae): CHARARACHANA (M); SHARARA (O); DIRRKHA (S)Indigofera schimperi Jaub. & Spach var schimperi (Papilionaceae): CHARARA-CHANA (M); SHARARA (O); DIRRKHA (S)Indigofera spinosa Forssk. (Papilionaceae): LITIS (O); KHODAH-THOL (S)Indigofera tinctoria L. (Papilionaceae): CHARARA-NAJA (M); MORASI (O)Jatropha dichtar Macbr. (Euphorbiaceae): GURUR (O); DIGDAR (S)Jatropha fissispina Pax (Euphorbiaceae): DAWA-BUNA (M); BURANKES, BURANKIS (O); HALBUN(S)Jatropha spicata Pax (Euphorbiaceae): DAWA-BUNA (M); MUK-SALA (O); HALBUN (S)Josephinia africana Vatke (Pedaliaceae): KUMUDHU-ARBA (O); GAANDI-MOROTHI (S)Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth. (= Kigelia aethiopum (Fenzl) Dandy) (Bignoniaceae): MOBWOKA (M); BOGH (O); BUKUROLA (S)Lamprothamnus zanguebaricus Hiern (Rubiaceae): MUBUNA JOVU (M); MUK-GURACH(O)Lannea alata (Engl.) Engl. (Anacardiaceae): SUFI-BARA (M); KUMUUDHE (O); KUMUDHE(S)Lannea triphylla (A. Rich.) Engl. (Anacardiaceae): HANDARAKU, HANDARAKU GOLDJA (O); WA-ANRI (S)Lawsonia inermis L. (Lythraceae): MOSORYA (M); DURRUR (O); ELAN (S)Lecaniodiscus fraxinifolius Bak. (Sapindaceae): MOTOWBI (M); MATOMPA (O); CHANAH(S)Lepisanthes senegalensis (Poir.) Leenh. (= Aphania senegalensis (Poir.) Radlk.) (Sapindaceae): MUQANTO(M)Maerua denhardtiorum Gilg (Capparaceae): QUQUBE (M); KUKUBE (O); OHIA (S)Maerua macrantha Gilg (Capparaceae): ALAKAL (M); ALLAKAL (O)Maerua subcordata (Gilg) De Wolf (Capparaceae): DAWA NYOKA, DAWA MAAZE (M); KUKUBE-TARI (O); OHIASAGARA (S)Maerua triphylla A. Rich var calophylla (Gilg) De Wolf (Capparaceae): KALAQACHA (M); KALKACH-HARE (O); DUMEI (S)Manilkara mochisia (Bak.) Dubard (Sapotaceae): MUWARADE (M); WARADHE (O); WARADHE(S)Markhamia zanzibarica (DC.) Engl. (Bignoniaceae): MCHAANDA (M)Maytenus heterophylla (Eckl & Zeyh.) N. Robson (Celastraceae): MOKALAKALA (M); KOBOCH (O); MANDARUK (S)Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Exell (Celastraceae): BAAGASA (M); KOBOCH (O); MANDARUK (S)Melia volkensii Guerke (Meliaceae): BAMBA (O)Meyna tetraphylla (Hiern) Robyns ssp comorensis (Robyns) Verde. (Rubiaceae): MUBURURI (M); BURURI (O)Mimosa pigra L. (Mimosaceae): ARANYOGO (M); DALANA (O)Mimusops obtusifolia Lam (= M. fruticosa A. DC.) (Sapotaceae): MUNUGAU (M); KOLATI (O); KOLA TI (S)Momordica spinosa (Gilg) Chiov. (Cucurbitaceae): MIDDAN-KAJIBW A (O); MATHAHBOK (S)Momordica trifoliolata Hook. f. (Cucurbitaceae): BHURE (M); GALE (O); BARABAR (S)Moringa borziana Mattei (Moringaceae): SAFARA (M); SAFARRA (O); MAWAH (S)Newtonia hildebrandtii (Vatke) Torre (Mimosaceae): MUWWARALE (M); MIROLE (O)Ocimum basilicum L. (Labiatae): HANTIRO, HANTIRRO, HANTIRO-LONI, HANTIRROLONI (O); RIHAN (S)Ocimum hadiense Forssk. (Labiatae): HANTIRO-GOLDJA (O)Oncella ambigua (Engl.) Van Tiegh (Loranthaceae): KINYUNI (M); DERTE (O); KADHU (S)Oncoba spinosa Forssk. (Flacourtiaceae): MUCHAAGU (M); SHIKO (O)Opilia campestris Engl. (Opiliaceae): AFUGUBA (M); AFGUB (O); AFGUB (S)Parkinsonia anacantha Brenan (Caesalpiniaceae): MUK-BEE (O)Parquetina nigrescens (Afz.) Bullock (Asclepiadaceae): ALWOTA (M)Pavetta sphaerobotrys K. Schum. ssp tanaica (Bremek.) Bridson (Rubiaceae): MWANAMOKA(M)Phoenix reclinata Jacq. (Palmae): GEDO (M); KONCHOR (O); ALOL (S)Phragmites australis (Cav.) Steud. (Gramineae): MAGUGU (M); GOMES (O)Phragmites mauritianus Kunth (Gramineae): GADHIYO (M); GADIO (O)Phyllanthus guineensis Pax (Euphorbiaceae): MOTYA-BO (M)Phyllanthus somalensis Hutch. (Euphorbiaceae): KORMOTO (M); KOMORTO (O); KAMORA(S)Platycelyphium voense (Engl.) Wild (Papilionaceae): MUKSATAWO (O); SABANSAIDA (S)Pluchea dioscoridis DC. (Compositae): MUNYONYO, MINYONYO (M)Polysphaeria multiflora Hiern (Rubiaceae): MUBUNA (M)Populus ilicifolia (Engl.) Rouleau (Salicaceae): MULALATI (M); LALAFTO (O); SIRKH (S)Premna resinosa Schauer (Verbenaceae): KATE-DIMTU (O); DJADJALLAH (S)Premna velutina Guerke (Verbenaceae): MOTYATUDU (M); MANOCHA (O)Pterodiscus ruspolii Engl. (Pedaliaceae): LILU (O)Pupalia lappacea (L.) A. Juss. (Amaranthaceae): KILUMATA (M); HAKANKARETI (O); DEBEKTAH (S)Rauvolfia mombasiana Stapf (Apocynaceae): LUPIKI (M)Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae): MOBONU (M); KOBOO (O); GITKALAT (S)Rinorea elliptica (Oliv.) O. Ktze. (Violaceae): MONOFWA-KUKU, MUDHURAJHO (M)Saba comorensis (DC.) Pichon (Apocynaceae): LOGUO (M)Salacia madagascariensis (Lam.) DC. (Celastraceae): MWITWA-MOW (M); GALE (O)Salsola dendroides Pall. var africana Brenan (Chenopodiaceae): DURTE (M); DURTE (O); DURTE (S)Salvadora persica L. var persica (Salvadoraceae): Dry bushland: MUSUAKI (M); ADE (O); ADHEI (S); Transitional zone: MUSUAKI (M); DALKATH (O); ADHEI (S)Sansevieria powellii N.E. Br. (Agavaceae): KONTOMA (M); KOTOM (O); ALGAH (S)Sansevieria sp. (Agavaceae): OKOOGWE (M); DURARTE (O); DURAR (S)Sclerocarya gillettii Kokwaro (Anacardiaceae): HUDAHUDO-LONI (O)Securinega virosa (Willd.) Baill. (Euphorbiaceae): MOKORORO (M); KORORO (O)Sericocomopsis pallida (S.Moore) Schinz (Amaranthaceae): HALKADHE (M); ABALONI (O); KASHIN-ADDAH (S)Sesamothamnus busseanus Engl. (Pedaliaceae): LILU (O); SALEL-MAAH (S)Sesbania quadrata Gillett (Papilionaceae): MOCHOBWE (M); LEBIER (S)Sida ovata Forssk. (Malvaceae): MUVUJA-HUKUMU (M)Solanum incanum L. (Solanaceae): MUHIDI (M); HIDI (O); KARIR (S)Solanum sp (Solanaceae): MUHIDI (M); HIDI (O); KARIR (S)Sorindcia madagascariensis DC. (Anacardiaceae): MWEBEBE (M)Spirostachys venenifera (Pax) Pax (=Excoecaria venenifera Pax) (Euphorbiaceae): MWACHA (M); WOLKON (O); HAIYAH-BADOD (S)Sterculia appendiculata K. Schum. (Sterculiaceae): MUFUNO (M); MAFUNO (O)Sterculia rhynchocarpa K. Schum. (Sterculiaceae): QARARHI (M); KHARARRI (O); KHARANDRI (S)Strophanthus mirabilis Gilg (Apocynaceae): ALWOTA-MOTE (M); BELLAM (O)Strychnos decussata (Pappe) Gilg (Loganiaceae): MUSUKARI (M); KITOL (O); KITOLE (S)Tapura fischeri Engl. (Dichapetalaceae): MUSIGlSIGlYA-JOVU (M)Tamarindus indica L. (Caesalpiniaceae): MORHOQA (M); RHOKA (O); RAHKAI (S)Tamarix nilotica (Ehrenb.) Bunge (Tamaricaceae): DURTYA WACHOLOH, DURTYA JOVU (M); DURTE-GALANA (O);DURTEH (S)Tennantia sennii (Chiov.) Verde. & Bridson (=Xeromphis keniensis Tennant) (Rubiaceae): HANCHA-DIMES (O); ORGAB (S)Terminalia brevipes Pampan. (Combretaceae): MOKOKOLA (M); ALANGO (O); ALLAN(S)Terminalia brownii Fres. (Combretaceae): HARIRIGO (O); HARAR (S)Terminalia orbicularis Engl. & Diels (Combretaceae): BISIQA (M); BISIK (O); BISAKH (S)Terminalia parvula Pampan (Combretaceae): QORHOBO (M); KOROBO (O); KORDOBO(S)Terminalia prunioides Laws. (Combretaceae): MWANGATA (M); BIRES (O); HARERI (S)Thespesia danis Olivo (Malvaceae): MUDAANISA (M); DAANIS, DANIS (O); KAPHAN (S)Thylachium thomasii Gilg (Capparaceae): QUQUBE (M); DIKA (O); ORIA (S)Tragia hildebrandtii Muell. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae): LALESA (M); LALESA (O)Trichilia emetica Vahl (=Trichilia roka (Forssk.) Chiov.) (Meliaceae): MUFAATE (M); SHOKE, SOKE (O)Typha domingensis Pers. (Typhaceae): HABHUR-GANA (M); HABURR (O); DARA (S)Uvaria leptocladon Olivo (Annonaceae): MOSHOLOLE (M); SHOLOLE (O); SHOLOLE (S)Vernonia hildebrandtii Vatke (Compositae): ORBISA (M)Wrightia demartiniana Chiov. (=Piaggiaea demartiana (Chiov.) Chiov.) (Apoeynaceae): HAE (O); HAYAH-HAYAH (S)Ximenia americana L. (Olaeaeeae): HUDA-HUDO (M); HUDA-HUDO BADDAH (O)APPENDIX 3: Alphabetical listing of local namesABAKH (S): Acacia tortilis ssp raddiana, Acacia tortilis ssp spirocarpaABALONI (O): Sericocomopsis pallidaADE (O): Salvadora persica var persica (dry bushland)ADHEI (S): Salvadora persica var persicaAFUGUBA (M): Opilia campestrisAFGUB (O, S): Opilia campestrisALAKAL (M): Maerua macranthaALANGO (O): Terminalia brevipesALGAH (S): Sansevieria powelliiALLAKAL (O): Cadaba gillettii, Maerua macranthaALLAN (S): Terminalia brevipesALOL (S): Phoenix reclinataALWOTA (M): Parquetina nigrescensALWOTA-MOTE (M): Strophanthus mirabilisANANIA (S): Dalechampia scandens var cordofanaANOL (S): Euphorbia gossypina var gossypinaARABA (O): Cordia ovalis, Ficus capreaefoliaARANYOGO (M): Mimosa pigraARJEH (S): Asparagus africanusBAAGASA (M): Maytenus senegalensisBADDAN (O): Balanites pedicellaris, B. rotundifoliaBALAMBAL (S): Abutilon aff pannosumBAMBA (O): Aspilia mossambicensis, Melia volkensiiBARABAR (S): Momordica trifoliolataBARDAH (S): Ficus sycomorusBARR (S): Hyphaene compressaBEBHI (S): Grewia densaBELLAM (O): Strophanthus mirabilisBHURE (M): Momordica trifoliolataBIL-EL (S): Acacia mellifera ssp melliferaBIRES (O): Terminalia prunioidesBISAKH (S): Terminalia orbicularisBISIK (S): Terminalia orbicularisBISIQA (M): Terminalia orbicularisBOGH (O): Kigelia africanaBUBUTOLE (M): Caralluma russellianaBUKUROLA (S): Kigelia africanaBURA (O): Acacia elatior ssp elatiorBURA (S): Erythrina melanacanthaBURA-DIMA (O): Acacia senegal var leiorhachisBURANKES (O): Jatropha fissispinaBURANKIS (O): Jatropha fissispinaBURBUR (S): Carphalea glaucescens ssp glaucescensBURRA (S): Acacia elatior ssp elatiorBURURI (O): Meyna tetraphylla ssp comorensisCHABHI (S): Cissus aphyllaCHACHANEH (O): Acacia paolii, Acacia horrida ssp benadirensisCHALABDO (O): Acacia nilotica ssp subalataCHAN-FAROD (S): Garcinia livingstoneiCHANAH (S): Lecaniodiscus fraxinifoliusCHANAH-ABAFUNGA (O): Commiphora sp nov 'Q'CHANAH-UDESI (O): Commiphora rostrataCHARARA-CHANA (M): Indigofera schimperi var baukeana, 1. schimperi var schimperiCHARARA-NAJA (M): Indigofera tinctoriaCHONEH (M): Commiphora rostrataCHONY A-BAAFUGHA (M): Commiphora sp nov 'Q'CHYACHY ANE (M): Acacia paoliiDAALITH (O): Euphorbia gossypina var gossypinaDAANIS (O): Thespesia danisDA-AR (S): Aloe spDA-ARBULLOKH (S): Aloe ruspolianaDABAS (O): Acacia tortilis ssp spirocarpaDABASO (O): Acacia tortilis ssp spirocarpaDABELL (S): Hyphaene compressa (young plant)DACKDO (O): Commiphora boiviniana ssp holosericeaDADACH (O): Acacia tortilis ssp raddianaDADACHA (M): Acacia tortilis ssp raddiana, A. tortilis ssp spirocarpaDADECH (O): Acacia tortilis ssp raddianaDADWOTA (M): Acacia tortilis ssp raddiana, A. tortilis ssp spirocarpaDAGAAJI (M): Cyathula coriaceaDAKAJI (O, S): Cyathula coriaceaDAKAJI-HOLA (O): Achyranthes asperaDAKAR (O): Boswellia neglectaDALADHU (O, S): Cyperus rotundusDALANA (O): Mimosa pigraDALITH (O): Euphorbia gossypina var gossypinaDALITH-HOKO (O): Euphorbia cryptospinosaDALKATH (O): Salvadora persica var persica (transitional zone)DALUTHA (S): Euphorbia cryptospinosaDAMAJA (S): Commiphora candidulaDAMBEL (O): Gardenia volkensiiDANA (M): Euphorbia gossypina var gossypinaDANA (M, S): Euphorbia tirucalliDANIS (O): Thespesia danisDANO (O): Hunteria zeylanica var africanaDARA (S): Typha domingensisDARISS (O): Garcinia livingstoneiDARKHEN (S): Euphorbia robecchiiDARSA (O): Combretum aculeatumDAWA MAAZE (M): Maerua subcordataDAWA NYOKA (M): Maerua subcordataDAWA USHINGO (M): Erythrococca kirkiiDAWA-BUNA (M): Jatropha fissispina, J. spicataDEBEKTAH (S): Pupalia lappaceaDEBHI (S): Grewia bicolor, G. plagiophylla, G. stuhlmanniiDEEN (S): Berchemia discolorDEKA (M, O): Grewia tenaxDEKA-BONATI (S): Grewia lilacinaDEKA-DUBRA (O): Grewia tembensisDEKHA (S): Grewia tenaxDENDE (O): Dobera loranthifoliaDERTE (O): Oncella ambiguaDHOLOL (S): Calyptrotheca taitensisDIBIRKH (S): Commiphora boiviniana ssp holosericeaDIGDAR (S): Jatropha dichtarDIKA (O): Thylachium thomasiiDIRRI (O): Carphalea glaucescens ssp glaucescensDIRRKHA (S): Indigofera schimperi var baukeana, I schimperi var schimperiDJADJALLAH (S): Premna resinosaDUBANJIRI (O): (not identified)DUBHANJIRI (M): (not identified)DUJUME (O): Calyptrotheca taitensisDUMEI (S): Cadaba farinosa, Maerua triphylla var calophyllaDURAR (S): Sansevieria sp.DURARTE (O): Sansevieria sp.DURRUR (O): Lawsonia inermis L.DURTE (M, O, S): Salsola dendroides var africanaDURTE-GALANA (O): Tamarix niloticaDURTEH (S): Tamarix niloticaDURTYA JOVU (M): Tamarix niloticaDURTYA WACHOLOH (M): Tamarix niloticaEDDIH-CHABEL (S): Harrisonia abpssinicaELAN (S): Lawsonia inermisERGAMS (O): Asparagus africanusERGAMSA (M): Asparagus africanusETHAD (S): Acacia hamulosa, A. senegal var senegalETHAD-GHERI (S): Acacia senegal var leiorhachisFAHFAH (M): Grewia densa, G. plagiophyllaFAHFAH-GEMA (M): Grewia stuhlmanniiFOODH-ADDAH (S): Arva lanataFULAI (S): Acacia zanzibarica var zanzibaricaGAAJIR (O): Acacia rovumaeGAANDI-MOROTHI (S): Josephinia africanaGADHIYO (M): Phragmites mauritianusGADIO (O): Phragmites mauritianusGALE (O): Hippocratea africana, Momordica trifoliolata, Salacia madagascariensisGARAS (S): Dobera glabra, D. loranthifoliaGASHIR (O): Dobera glabraGEDO (M): Phoenix reclinataGHAMA-KINUGI (M): Cissus aphyllaGHEREBE (O): Combretum constrictumGHEREBHE (M): Combretum constrictumGITKALAT (S): Ricinus communisGOCHAN-GOL (S): Adenium obesumGOLLOL (S): Acacia busseiGOLOCH (O): Acacia busseiGOMES (O): Phragmites australisGORA (S): Caesalpinia trothae ssp erlangeriGORA (O, S): Capparis fascicularis var fascicularis, C. sepiariaGORA (M, O): Harrisonia abyssinicaGORA-NYILO (M): Capparis tomentosaGORAZA JOVU (M): Capparis tomentosaGOROMS-GARERO (O): Ehretia spGUDIS (O): Acacia tortilis ssp raddiana (young plant)GUMURR (S): Acacia nubicaGURUR (O): Jatropha dichtarHABACHO (O): Albizia anthelminticaHABACHU (O): Albizia anthelminticaHABALAKES (O): Acacia mellifera ssp melliferaHABAMBAL (O): Abutilon aff pannosumHABASHO (S): Albizia anthelminticaHABHUR-GANA (M): Typha domingensisHABURR (O): Typha domingensisHACHINI (O): Hibiscus vitifoliusHADHAMA (O): Euphorbia robecchiiHAE (O): Wrightia demartinianaHAGARSU (O): Commiphora paoliiHAGAGO (S): Acacia horrida ssp benadirensis (pod)HAGAR (S): Commiphora paoliiHAGHARSU (M): Commiphora paoliiHAIYAH-BADOD (S): Spirostachys veneniferaHAJOLA (S): Commiphora confusa VollesenHAKANKARETI (O): Pupalia lappaceaHALAKU-AJO (O): Cissus aphyllaHALBUN (S): Jatropha fissispina, J. spicataHALKADHE (M): Sericocomopsis pallidaHAMARES (O): Caesalpinia trothae ssp erlangeriHAMMES-ARBA (O): Commiphora sp nov 'P'HAMMES-SAGARA (S): Commiphora africanaHANCHA-DIMES (O): Tennantia senniiHANDARAKU (O): Lannea triphyllaHANDARAKU-GOLDJA (O): Lannea triphyllaHANTIRO (O): Ocimum basilicumHANTIRRO (O): Ocimum basilicumHANTIRO-GOLDJA (O): Ocimum hadienseHANTIRO-LONI (O): Ocimum basilicumHANTIRRO-LONI (O): Ocimum basilicumHARAR (S): Terminalia browniiHARERI (S): Terminalia prunioidesHARGES (O): Aloe spHARGEISA (M): Aloe spHARIRIGO (O): Terminalia browniiHARORU (O): Grewia bicolor, G. densa, G. stuhlmanniiHARORU-MIYAA (O): Grewia bicolor, G. densa, G. stuhlmanniiHARORU-HADDA (O): Grewia plagiophyllaHATHAMA (M): Euphorbia robecchiiHAYAH-HAYAH (S): Wrightia demartinianaHIDI (O): Solanum incanum, Solanum spHOTHEI (S): Commiphora sp nov 'P'HUDA-HUDO (M): Ximenia americanaHUDA-HUDO BADDAH (O): Ximenia americanaHUDAHUDO-LONI (O): Sclerocarya gillettiiILKABATA (S): Cadaba ruspoliiILKABATH (O): Cadaba ruspoliiITITOWKI (M): Flagellaria guineensisJAJAB (O): Berchemia discolorJAJABHO (M): Berchemia discolor (fruit)JAJANEH (S): Acacia paoliiJIRMACH (O): Hildebrandtia sepalosaJOLOKO-ZA-BHIZOKA (M): Cassia occidentalisKADHU (S): Oncella ambiguaKADOE (M): Combretum paniculatumKAKA-MCHANGANI (M): Carissa edulisKALAQACHA (M): Boscia coriacea, Cadaba farinosa, Cadaba farinosa ssp farinosa, Maerua triphylla var calophyllaKALAULA (S): Euphorbia grandicornisKALA WILLE (O): Euphorbia grandicornisKALKACH (O): Boscia coriacea, Cassine aquifoliumKALKACH-HARE (O): Cadaba farinosa, Maerua triphylla var calophyllaKAMASHA (S): Grewia villosaKAMORA (S): Phyllanthus somalensisKAPHAN (S): Thespesia danisKARAPELA (O): Clerodendrum acerbianumKARHABELA (M): Clerodendrum acerbianumKARIR (S): Solanum incanum, Solanum sp.KARO (O): Gardenia fioriiKARRO (S): Gardenia fioriiKASHIN-ADDAH (S): Sericocomopsis pallidaKATE (O): Blepharispermum fruticosum ssp lanceolatumKATE-DIMTU (O): Premna resinosaKATE-GURATI (O): Cadaba farinosa ssp farinosaKAULA (S): Ecbolium striatumKAWISA (O): Gyrocarpus hababensis var angustifoliusKHALANGHAL (S): Boscia coriaceaKHARANDRI (S): Sterculia rhynchocarpaKHARARRI (O): Sterculia rhynchocarpaKHODAH-THOL (S): Indigofera spinosaKIDHALAKA (M): Ecbolium striatumKILCHACHO (O): Commiphora confusa VollesenKILUMATA (M): Pupalia lappaceaKINYUNI (M): Oncella ambiguaKITOL (O): Strychnos decussataKITOLE (S): Strychnos decussataKIVUJA-MUDI (M): Acalypha spKOBOCH (O): Maytenus heterophylla, M senegalensisKOBOO (O): Ricinus communisKOHKON (S): Combretum hereroenseKOLATI (S): Diospyros mespiliformisKOLATI (O, S): Mimusops obtusifoliaKOLATI-GURATI (O): Diospyros mespiliformisKOMORTO (O): Phyllanthus somalensisKOMPER (O): Commiphora africanaKOMPERA (O): Commiphora africanaKONCHOR (O): Phoenix reclinataKONE (O): Hyphaene compressaKONKON (O): Combretum hereroenseKONTOMA (M): Sansevieria powelliiKORDOBO (S): Terminalia parvulaKORMOTO (M): Phyllanthus somalensisKOROBO (O): Terminalia parvulaKORORO (O): Flueggia virosaK0SAI (S): Givotia gosaiK0SAlYE (M): Cephalocroton cordofanusK0SAIYE (M, O): Givotia gosaiKOSAIYE-IRIAD (S): Cephalocroton cordofanusKOSAIYE-REA (O): Cephalocroton cordofanusKOTE (O): Cordia sinensis (riverine forest)KOTOM (O): Sansevieria powelliiKUKUBE (O): Maerua denhardtiorumKUKUBE-TARI (O): Maerua subcordataKULLAN (S): Balanites pedicellaris, Balanites rotundifoliaKUMUDHE (S): Lannea alataKUMUDHU-ARBA (O): Josephinia africanaKUMUUDHE (O): Lannea alataKURIMO (M): Cyperus articulatusKURO (O, S): Commiphora campestrisKURR (O): Cyperus articulatusKURRA (M): Cyperus articulatusLALAFTO (O): Populus ilicifoliaLALESA (M, O): Tragia hildebrandtiiLALESA ARBA (O): Dalechampia scandens var cordofanaLEBHI (S): Delonix elataLEBIER (S): Sesbania quadrataLILU (O): Pterodiscus ruspolii, Sesamothamnus busseanusLITIS (O): Indigofera spinosaLOGUO (M): Saba comorensisLOJO (M): Ficus capreaefoliaLUKISA (O): Euclea natalensis ssp obovataLUPIKI (M): Rauvolfia mombasianaLUV ADHIN-DURE (S): Aspilia mossambicensisMADER (O): Cordia sinensis (dry bushland)MADERA (M, O): Cordia sinensis (dry bushland)MADER-WARABESA (O): Cordia crenataMAFUNO (O): Sterculia appendiculataMAGUGU (M): Phragmites australisMAKANGAYA (M): Cyperus rotundusMAKEKE (M): Ampelocissus africanaMANDARUK (S): Maytenus heterophylla, M senegalensisMANOCHA (O): Premna velutinaMANYAMAWO (M): Echinochloa haplocladaMARAFA (O): Borassus aethiopumMARDAFA (S): Borassus aethiopumMARER (S): Cordia sinensis (dry bushland)MARER-GIRGIR (S): Cordia goetzei, C. ovalisMARER-KHOH (S): Cordia sinensis (riverine)MAT-BUTO (O): Caralluma russellianaMATHAHBOK (S): Momordica spinosaMATOMPA (O): Lecaniodiscus fraxinifoliusMAWAH (S): Moringa borzianaMCHAANDA (M): Markhamia zanzibaricaMCHICHOZI (M): Garcinia livingstoneiMELA (O): Echinochloa haplocladaMETI (O): Hyphaene compressa (young plants)MEZI (M): Hyphaene compressa (young plants)MIDDAN-KAJIBWA (O): Momordica spinosaMINYONYO (M): Pluchea dioscoridisMIRAFUR (S): Boswellia neglectaMIROLE (O): Newtonia hildebrandtiiMOBONU (M): Ricinus communisMOBWOKA (M): Kigelia africanaMOCHOBWE (M): Sesbania quadrataMOGOGO (M): Acacia rovumaeMOKABUKIYE (M): Aristolochia bracteolataMOKALAKALA (M): Carissa edulis, Maytenus heterophyllaMOKAMUKEWA (M): Arva lanataMOKOKOLA (M): Terminalia brevipesMOKOMA (M): Hyphaene compressaMOKOPA (M): Dobera glabra, D. loranthifoliaMOKORORO (M): Securinega virosaMOKOWLO (M): Diospyros mespiliformisMOKOYO (M): Ficus sycomorusMONOFWA-KUKU (M): Rinorea ellipticaMORASI (O): Indigofera tinctoriaMORHOQA (M): Tamarindus indicaMOSHOLOLE (M): Uvaria leptocladonMOSORYA (M): Lawsonia inermisMOTEMWELO (M): Albizia gummiferaMOTOWBI (M): Lecaniodiscus fraxinifoliusMOTYA-BHUBHA (M): Calotropis procera, Datura metelMOTYA-BO (M): Phyllanthus guineensisMOTYA-IZIBA (M): Deinbollia borbonicaMOTYA-MOWGI (M): Diospyros abyssinicaMOTYA-MWOQA (M): Erythroxylum emarginatumMOTYA-RUGHA (M): Calotropis proceraMOTYATUDU (M): Premna velutinaMOW (M): Hippocratea africanaMRHUGA (M): Calotropis proceraMUBADANA (M): Balanites pedicellaris, Balanites rotundifoliaMUBUNA (M): Polysphaeria multifloraMUBURURI (M): Meyna tetraphylla ssp comorensisMUCHAAGU (M): Oncoba spinosaMUCHUCHATA (M, O): Cordia goezeiMUDAANISA (M): Thespesia danisMUDEENO (M): Hunteria zeylanica var africanaMUDHURAJHO (M): Rinorea ellipticaMUFAATE (M): Trichilia emeticaMUFUNO (M): Sterculia appendiculataMUHIDI (M): Solanum incanum, Solanum spMUJAJABHO (M): Berchemia discolorMUK-BEE (O): Parkinsonia anacanthaMUK-BUKIE (O): Aristolochia bracteolataMUK-FADJI (O): Adenium obesumMUK-GURACH (O): Lamprothamnus zanguebaricusMUK-RHUGA (O): Calotropis proceraMUK-SABO (O): Arva lanataMUK-SALA (O): Jatropha spicataMUK-SUFI (O): Ceiba pentandraMUKSATAWO (O): Platycelyphium voenseMULALATI (M): Populus ilicifoliaMULUQISA (M): Euclea natalensis ssp obovataMULWABO (M): Dalechampia scandens var cordofanaMUMBALAMBALE (M): Ficus busseiMUNUGAU (M): Mimusops obtusifoliaMUNYAGAT (O): Acacia robusta ssp usambarensisMUNYANGAT (O): Acacia robusta ssp usambarensisMUNYONYO (M): Pluchea dioscoridisMUPAKATA (M): Cynometra aff C. webberiMUQANTO (M): Lepisanthes senegalensisMURIE-BONATI (S): Grewia tembensisMURIFATE (M): Borassus aethiopumMUSADYEQA (M): Caesalpinia bonducMUSIGISIGI (M): Antidesma venosumMUSIGISIGIYA-JOVU (M): Tapura fisheriMUSUAKI (M): Salvadora persica var persicaMUSUFI (M): Ceiba pentandraMUSUKARI (M): Strychnos decussataMUTAALE (M): Cordia sinensis (riverine forest)MUTALYA-NAJA (M): Cordia sinensis (dry bushland)MUTLYA-CHANA (M): Cordia sinensis (in riverine forest)MUUGA (M): Acacia elatior ssp elatiorMUUGA-FUWE (M): Acacia robusta ssp usambarensisMUVUJA-HUKUMU (M): Sida ovataMUVUMA (M): Ficus spMUWACHYU (M): Acacia zanzibarica var zanzibaricaMUWARADE (M): Manilkara mochisiaMUWWARALE (M): Newtonia hildebrandtiiMWACHA (M): Spirostachys veneniferaMWADAMA (M): Drypetes natalensis var leiogynaMWANA-MOKA (M): Pavetta sphaerobotrys ssp tanaicaMWANGATA (M): Terminalia prunioidesMWEBEBE (M): Sorindeia madagascariensisMWEZE-BANYA (M): Allophylus rubifoliusMWITWA-MOW (M): Salacia madagascariensisNAMWALIKO (M): Capparis tomentosaNANAIDHO (M): Abrus precatoriusNYALA-ZA-SIBA (M): Erythrina melanacanthaNYAMILI (M): Cocculus hirsutusOBA (S): Adenia globosa ssp globosaOBBE (O): Adenia globosa ssp globosaODHA (O): Ficus sycomorusOGHONDI (M): Grewia villosaOGOMDI (O): Grewia villosaOHIA (S): Maerua denhardtiorumOHIA (S): Thylachium thomasiiOHIA SAGARA (S): Maerua subcordataOKOOGWE (M): Sansevieria spORBISA (M): Vernonia hildebrandtiiORGAB (S): Tennantia senniiORONKIO-GALA (O): Grewia lilacinaOSATARI (O): Acacia hamulosaQARARHI (M): Sterculia rhynchocarpaQORHOBO (M): Terminalia parvulaQUQUBE (M): Maerua denhardtiorum, Thylachium thomasiiRAASAIYE (M): Aloe ruspolianaRAASAYE (O): Aloe ruspolianaRAHKAI (S): Tamarindus indicaRHEMANGUZI (M): Capparis sepiariaRHIGHA (M): Acacia reficiens ssp miseraRHOKA (O): Tamarindus indicaRIGH (O, S): Acacia reficiens ssp miseraRIHAN (S): Ocimum basilicumSABANSAIDA (S): Platycelyphium voenseSADEK (O): Caesalpinia bonducSAFARA (M): Moringa borzianaSAFARRA (O): Moringa borzianaSALEL-MAAH (S): Sesamothamnus busseanusSAMPASA (M): Acacia mellifera ssp melliferaSERMAN (S): Acacia horrida ssp benadirensisSHARARA (O): Indigofera schimperi var baukeana, I schimperi var schimperiSHIKO (O): Oncoba spinosaSHOLOLE (O, S): Uvaria leptocladonSHOKE (O): Trichilia emeticaSIRKH (S): Populus ilicifoliaSOBAGLAH (S): Commiphora sp nov 'Q'SOBONAH (O): Acacia senegal var senegalSOKE (O): Trichilia emeticaSUFI-BARA (M): Lannea alataSUKELE (M, O): Delonix elataTIRA (O): Anisotes tanensisTOKOCHO (O): Commiphora unilobataTOTOKE (O): Flagellaria guineensisTUGER (S): Acacia nilotica ssp subalataTUK (O): Cadaba glandulosaTUKH (S): Cadaba glandulosaTULATA (M): Adenium obesumTURIN-BARBAR (S): Caralluma russellianaTUTATU (O): Anisotes ukambensisUDESI (O): Commiphora rostrataUMU-SHIMPIREA (O): Abrus precatoriusWA-ANRI (S): Lannea triphyllaWAACHU (O): Acacia zanzibarica var zanzibaricaWADIDA (O): Euphorbia tirucalliWAIGHO (M): Azima tetracanthaWAKAMA (M): Alafia caudataWANGE (O): Acacia nubicaWARADHE (O, S): Manilkara mochisiaWARAREB (O): Commiphora candidulaWARHARHEBHO (M): Commiphora candidulaWOGHO (M): Hildebrandtia sepalosaWOLES (O): Erythrina melanacanthaWOLKON (O): Spirostachys veneniferaYAK (O, S): Adansonia digitata

F. N. Gachathi, S. G. Johansson, and G. M. Alakoski-Johansson "A Check-List of Indigenous Trees and Shrubs of Bura, Tana River District, Kenya With Malakote, Orma and Somali Names," Journal of East African Natural History 83(2), 117-141, (1 July 1994). https://doi.org/10.2982/0012-8317(1994)83[117:ACOITA]2.0.CO;2
Published: 1 July 1994
JOURNAL ARTICLE
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