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1 July 1994 Vegetation Map and Plant Checklist of Ol Ari Nyiro Ranch and the Mukutan Gorge, Laikipia, Kenya
Joshua M. Muasya, Truman P. Young, David N. Okebiro
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Ol Ari Nyiro is a 360 km2 ranch on the Laikipia Plateau, in a semi-arid part of Kenya. The vegetation of the ranch and of nearby Mukutan Gorge was mapped, and a preliminary check-list of fungi and vascular plants compiled. The vegetation was classified in 16 different types. A total of 708 species and subspecies were identified. This represents 10% of the estimated Kenyan flora, making Ol Ari Nyiro one of the most diverse non-forest areas in East Africa.

VEGETATION MAP AND PLANT CHECKLIST OF OL ARI NYIRO RANCH AND THE MUKUTAN GORGE, LAIKIPIA, KENYAJoshua M. Muasya⟨sup⟩1⟨/sup⟩, Truman P. Young⟨sup⟩2⟨s/up⟩ & David N. Okebiro⟨sup⟩1⟨/sup⟩Gallmann Memorial FoundationP.O. Box 45593, Nairobi, KenyaABSTRACTOl Ari Nyiro is a 360 km⟨sup⟩2⟨/sup⟩ ranch on the Laikipia Plateau, in a semi-arid part of Kenya. The vegetation of the ranch and of nearby Mukutan Gorge was mapped, and a preliminary check-list of fungi and vascular plants compiled. The vegetation was classified in 16 different types. A total of 708 species and subspecies were identified. This represents 10% of the estimated Kenyan flora, making Ol Ari Nyiro one of the most diverse non-forest areas in East Africa.INTRODUCTIONThe Ol Ari Nyiro/Mukutan Gorge area is one of the most diverse non-forest areas in East Africa. It is home to the Gallmann Memorial Foundation, which has strived to keep it in as natural a state as possible, and which sponsors ecological research on the semi-arid ecosystems of north-central Kenya (Young & Francombe, 1991; Oloo et al., 1994).Ol Ari Nyiro is a 360 km⟨sup⟩2⟨/sup⟩ (approximately 90,000 acres) ranch located on the Laikipia plateau in the Republic of Kenya. It lies between longitudes 36° 17' and 36° 29' E and between latitudes 0° 29' and 0° 42' N. Elevations range from 1,260 m at the base of the gorge to 2,200 m in the hills to the south-west. The diverse topography supports a variety of vegetation types from dry marginal forest to semi-arid bushland. Mean annual rainfall (fig. 5) has ranged from 340 mm in the driest year (1983) to 1,322 mm in the wettest year (1963), and generally decreases from the southwest to the northeast (see Rainfall', below). Mean yearly maximum and minimum temperatures are estimated to be 30° and 14°C, respectively (Odinga, 1971). The Mukutan River flows through the centre of the property, with the upper reaches partially seasonal. Several springs provide permanent water to the ranch. There are also 33 dams throughout the ranch.Ol Ari Nyiro is a valuable remnant of the diverse flora and fauna that once covered vast areas of the Laikipia Plateau and the eastern Rift Valley escarpment. Our goal was to produce a preliminary plant checklist and a description of the vegetation of Ol Ari Nyiro/Mukutan Gorge to assist in future conservation, management, and development plans for the area.⟨sup⟩1⟨/sup⟩Present address: East African Herbarium, National Museums of Kenya, P.O. Box 40658, Nairobi, Kenya⟨sup⟩2⟨/sup⟩Present address: Mpala Research Centre, Box 555, Nanyuki, Kenya and Louis Calder Center, Fordham University, Box K, Armonk, NY 10504,USAFigure 1: location of the study areaThis survey comprised the entire Ol Ari Nyiro Ranch, including the upper Mukutan Gorge, and those parts of the lower Mukutan Gorge that lie outside the boundaries of the ranch. Ol Ari Nyiro is a 360 km⟨sup⟩2⟨/sup⟩ privately-owned ranch located on the Laikipia Plateau in the Republic of Kenya (36° 25' E, 0° 35' N). The Laikipia plateau was the result of uplift 20-25 million years ago, producing a broad high plain between the future sites of Mount Kenya and the Aberdare Mountains. The highest point on the ranch is 2,200 m above sea level, and most of the ranch lies between 1,800 and 2,000 m.Faulting and folding of rocks during the formation of the Rift Valley is thought to have produced faultlines in the Mukutan area, leading to weaknesses and sinking. The Mukutan River was possibly redirected along such lines of weakness, further deepening and widening them by erosion. There are a number of side gorges running perpendicular to the main gorge, and parallel to exposed fault lines. The Mukutan River flows through the gorge from east to west, ultimately reaching Lake Baringo 20 km to the west. The mouth of the gorge is 1,260 m above sea level, rising to 1,780 m at the eastern end. At the deepest point, the gorge walls are approximately 600 m high.History of land useThe Laikipia Plateau was probably been used by pastoralists for at least several hundred years. Ol Ari Nyiro has been a private ranch for approximately forty years. During most of this time, it has been an active cattle ranch. At the time of this survey, there were 2,600 cattle on the property. These numbers have recently been reduced substantially in the interest of increasing biodiversity.Fire from humans and natural sources has probably always occurred on this land. As recently as 1990, fire was used as a management tool in controlling woody species, with some areas burnt yearly and others at longer intervals. This practice has been discontinued. Several hundred hectares in the wetter southwestern part of the property are under cultivation.The Gallmann Memorial Foundation, which manages the land, is dedicated to reconciling the needs of both humans and biodiversity. As such, its current management is aimed at integrated land management that minimizes negative effects on indigenous plants and animals.Vegetation mapThe drawing of a vegetation map presupposes demonstrable variation in plant community structure. More importantly, it assumes that this variation can somehow be compartmentalised into vegetation types'. The existence of a line on a vegetation map implies clear differences between the areas on either side of the line, and relative uniformity within a particular type'. This is rarely the case (Barbour et al., 1987).Each plant species has distributional limits that are more or less distinct. If entire plant communities were also distinct, the distributional limits of most important species would cooccur. For example, on reaching the end of Acacia woodland' and entering mixed bushland', one might expect several common species associated with the woodland to disappear, and for most of the fundamental elements of the bushland to appear. Such a pattern would be indicative of the unit concept' of community structure.When they do occur, there are several causes for these abrupt and clear-cut community boundaries in nature. A) There is sometimes a sudden change in soil type. B) In habitats that are burned, the limits of burns may be consistent because the fires reach a barrier, such as a river, a road, or a forest edge. Then plant community boundaries can be sharp and dramatic. C) Sometimes, the presence of several species is dependent on the presence of a single keystone' species. At the distributional limit of the keystone species, all of the dependent species also disappear. In such cases, the lines on a vegetation map represent very real community boundaries. This situation is less common.More commonly, plants species enter or drop out of the community along a gradient more or less independently of each other. This represents the individualistic concept' of community structure. In such cases, there are no clear cut boundaries for communities, and vegetation maps serve not to delineate distinct types, but to indicate overall change. One must not expect the lines on a vegetation map always to be obvious in the field; often it is merely the judgement of the mapper as to the characteristics that are important (usually the limits of important species).We carried out this mapping through ground surveys, mostly by TPY. Using existing roads and trails, he was able to directly survey virtually the entire property.OL ARI NYIRO VEGETATIONOn Ol Ari Nyiro Ranch, there are both distinct community boundaries, and areas of gradual community change, the latter being more common. Each of the most important woody shrub species has a distribution that is mostly independent of the others. In fact, the types' delineated on the vegetation maps are mostly determined by the limits of individual species, with each type being characterized by a particular combination of the few dominant species. Therefore it is appropriate to begin a description of Ol Ari Nyiro vegetation with a description of dominant plant species. First, however, we will describe the environmental factors that determine these distributions.Environmental Factors (Gradients)1. Topography/Soils (fig. 2)The most striking environmental factor on the ranch is topography. The Mukutan Gorge and its associated valleys dominate the landscape. The eastern part of the ranch is more or less flat, dropping gently from east to west. In the northeastern corner there are some low hills. The western part of the ranch is cut in half by the Mukutan Gorge running east-west, into which numerous subsidiary valleys run perpendicularly. The result is a parallel series of narrow flat-topped ridges separated by steep slopes. The southwestern corner of the ranch contains the last moist hills coming down from the Aberdare Mountains 50 km to the south.The soils of the area show a distribution determined mostly by topography. The Kenya Soils Survey has made a preliminary survey of the area (Ahn & Geiger, 1987), and describes four soil types:A. Eutric cambisols in the gorges. Excessively drained, shallow, brown to greyish brown, gravely, loam to clay'.B. Chromic cambisols throughout the remainder of the western two-thirds of the ranch. Excessively drained, shallow, dark brown, gravely, clay loam to clay'.C. Luvic phaeozems on the eastern third and south of the ranch. Well drained, very deep, dark reddish brown to brown, firm clay, with 20 cm humic topsoil'.D. Chromic luvisols on the hills of the extreme southeastern corner of the ranch. Well drained, very deep, dark reddish brown, firm, clay loam to clay'.Figure 2: Soils of Ol Ari Nyiro; Alv = alluvial deposits (redrawn from the map of Ahn & Geiger, 1987)In addition, there are alluvial deposits in the north-central part of the ranch.2. Geology—Seeps (figures 3 & 4)The underlying geology effects the kind of soils found on the ranch, as in the case above of alluvial deposits (Anonymous, 1977; 1987). But geology also has another striking effect on vegetation. Throughout the ranch there are seeps and springs where water emerges from subsurface flow. Vegetation on these seeps is very different from drier sites nearby. These seeps seem to coincide with two different geological phenomena. First, several seeps appear to be associated with fault lines. Second, seeps can occur where erosion has exposed a boundary between two basic geological formations, such as on the slope above and south of Maji ya Nyoka. Both of these types of seeps can be seen when the geology maps are overlaid with the vegetation map.Figure 3: Geologic faults and lava flow fronts on Ol Ari Nyiro (Redrawn from Anonymus, 1977)3. RainfallMean annual rainfall over the past 41 years has been 773 mm at the ranch headquarters, which is located at the center of the property. During this period, rainfall ranged from 340 mm in the driest year (1983) to 1,322 mm in the wettest year (1963) (fig. 5). Rainfall is somewhat bimodal, peaking in April-May and July-August (fig.6).Figure 4: Surface geology of Ol Ari Nyiro (redrawn from Anonymus, 1977). b: Samburu basalts; p1: Ngelesha Phonolites; p2, p3: Uaso Nyiro Phonolites; p4: Marmanet Phonolites; s: Sapili Trachyte; t: tuff; a: alluviumThere are currently seven active rain guages on the property. These suggest there is a rainfall gradient on the ranch decreasing from south to north, or as maps of the Laikipia Research Project suggest, from southwest (900 mm) to northeast (700 mm). However, the hills in the northwest corner of the ranch appear to get more rain than lower areas adjacent to them.Figure 5: Annual rainfall in mmFigure 6: Mean monthly rainfall in mm4. BurningBurning has had a pronounced effect on the vegetation of the northern and western parts of ranch, opening up areas that would otherwise be thick bush.5. HerbivoryThe recent fencing of grass leys and bush bomas is likely to result in vegetation differences in the future, but it is too soon for these differences to be obvious. However, it is already possible to see differences in the Ngelesha forest between areas with and without elephants.Together, these environmental factors determine the distribution of most of the dominant woody plants on the ranch. However, each species' distributional response to these factors is unique. Below, we describe the distributions of key plant species.Key Species1. Tarconanthus camphoratus (Leleshwa)Leleshwa is the dominant shrub on the southern part of the ranch, in some areas forming virtually pure stands, excluding all other woody species. Its northern limit is probably related to decreasing rainfall. Its western limit neatly follows the boundary between the gorge and upland soils. Leleshwa prefers more or less level ground with rich, deep soil (Young & Francombe, 1991).2. Euclea divinorum & E. racemosa ssp schimperi (Mukinyei)Euclea is the dominant shrub in the northern and eastern, drier parts of the ranch. At its southern limit, it overlaps considerably with Leleshwa. It can be found in a wide variety of topographic situations and plant associations.3. Carissa edulis (Mukawa)Carissa has a distribution similar to that of Euclea, but more restricted. It seems to particularly thrive on rockier soils, such as those along the eastern boundary, and in these situation it can be more common than Euclea.4. Acacia gerrardiiAcacia gerrardii occurs mostly north of the ranch centre on flat, deep soils clearly associated with alluvial deposits. Twenty years ago, the acacia woodland had many tall trees, but most of these are now gone. Their disappearance has been mainly attributed to elephants. Elephants have undoubtedly knocked down older trees, but it may be that these older trees were past their prime. Elsewhere in East Africa, Acacia species form single age stands, and the individuals within a stand appear to senesce around the same time (Young & Lindsay, 1988).There are abundant smaller A. gerrardii trees of various ages (representing several cohorts?). These trees are heavily fed upon by elephants, but usually survive this herbivory, unlike older trees. Whether these younger tree will eventually grow to replace their predecessors is not clear. The recent increase in the density of elephants threatens to perpetually keep them from attaining full height. It is possible a series of wet years would provide elephants with enough alternate food, and allow fast enough acacia growth that substantial numbers of acacias could grow out of the shrub layer.5. Acacia brevispica (Wait-a-bit)Acacia brevispica has a disjunct distribution, representing two distinct plant associations. First, it is common along the steep slopes of the gorges. Second, on the eastern part of the ranch, A. brevispica occurs in relatively narrow bands that tend to be associated with gentle rocky slopes. In these sites it is almost always found with Croton dichogamus.6. Combretum molle and other Combretum speciesCombretum occurs in the hilly terrain in the north, particularly on ridge tops in the west, and hill slopes in the north and east. It often predominates in the wooded grasslands maintained by fire. Elephants appear to enjoy knocking down adult Combretum trees for unknown reasons, although we suspect that they are eating something in the roots (R. Brett, pers. comm.).7. Olea europea (Olive)Olive is the dominant tree in the forests and thickets throughout the ranch, except the riverine forests. Its distribution is scattered, and of three types: A) The Ngelesha forests in the south west. B) Along seeps, particularly in the central part of the ranch. C) In the north-eastern part of the ranch. The first two sites are seasonally moist, but the latter should be relatively dry. It is possible that the north-eastern hills catch more rain than adjacent lower land. Olive may once have covered much more of ranch than it does now (C. Francombe, pers. comm.).8. Acacia xanthophloea (Fever Tree)Fever trees are restricted to the bottom of the Mukutan Gorge, in areas where the gorge is not too narrow, where there is permanent water and good soil. These sites are mainly at the upper and lower ends of the Gorge.9. Croton megalocarpus & C. machrostachysCroton trees occur in situations similar to Fever Trees, but somewhat drier, placing them further upstream. Its distribution overlaps with Fever Trees at the wetter end, and Olive at the drier end. Often found in association with Euphorbia candelabrum.10. Acacia abyssinicaAcacia abyssinica is restricted to the southern part of the ranch, where it forms forest-edge woodlands in the vicinity of Olive forest. Although the adults of this species are apparently healthy, there are relatively few young individuals. This unstable age distribution may be of importance later, when the older individuals begin to die.The distributions of these ten species largely determine the limits of the vegetation types of Ol Ari Nyiro ranch.Vegetation TypesTaiti (1992) has produced a valuable vegetation map of Laikipia District, at a scale of 1:500,000 (also available at 1:125,000). At this scale, he recognizes six broad vegetation communities on Ol Ari Nyiro and their dominant plant species: grassland (Themeda triandra, Pennisetum mezianum), leafy bushland and thicket (Carissa edulis, Rhus natalensis, Euclea divinorum), leafy bushland (Tarconanthus camphoratus, Rhus natalensis), bare rock (actually rocky areas with less vegetation cover), and small areas of upland/riverine forest (Juniperus procera, Podocarpus, Olea europea, Acacia xanthophloea) and cropland.Mapping onto original topographic maps at a scale of 1:50,000, we were able to delineate finer plant community distinctions. The accompanying vegetation map (fig. 7) delineates 16 key plant associations that may be considered types', with the qualifications mentioned at the beginning of this report. These are arranged generally from wetter to drier, and to a lesser degree from south to north.1. Fever Tree riverine woodlandOpen woodland along ± permanent streams, found at the eastern and western ends of the gorge, where the valley bottoms are wider and the soil deeper. Characterized by Acacia xanthophloea trees, usually grassy beneath. Canopy cover 25-75 %. Canopy height 10-25 m.2. Deep gorge riverine vegetationA tall rich vegetation type in the bottom of the gorge, in the central, very narrow section. It is composed mostly of riparian trees such as Phoenix reclinata, Bridelia micrantha, Strychnos spp, Trichocladus ellipticus, Garcinia livingstonei, Oncoba spinosa, Ficus glumosa and Albizia grandbracteata. Smaller woody species include Grewia trichocarpa, Combretum apiculatum, and Teclea nobilis. Disturbances in the lower part of the gorge have left relic forest patches with grassy glades in between. In less disturbed areas especially in the upper and middle parts of the gorge, the forest is relatively dense, with minimal herbaceous growth. Canopy cover 50-100%. Canopy height 10-25 m.3. Croton drainage woodlandA tall woodland/forest found along drainages higher and drier that Fever Tree woodland. Characterized by Croton megalocarpus and C. machrostachys, sometimes with Olea europea and Euphorbia candelabrum. Canopy cover 75-100%. Canopy height 15-25 m.4. Olive forestA dry upland forest dominated by Olea europea, Acacia abyssinica, and Croton spp (Juniperus procera in Ngelesha) in the canopy, with Trichocladus ellipticus and Rhus spp in the understorey. Canopy cover 100% or nearly so. Canopy height 10-20 m.5. Olive thicketA dense vegetation shorter and drier than Olive forest. Found on hills and along seeps and dry drainages. Characterized .by Olea europea, Rhus spp, Apodytes dimidiata, and Jasminum spp. Often penetrated by Leleshwa, Euclea, and Carissa (Type 12). Canopy cover 50-100%. Canopy height 3-10 m.6. Acacia abyssinica woodlandA tall but often sparse woodland characterized by Acacia abyssinica trees. Rhus, Lippia, Lantana, and Vernonia occur in the understorey. Canopy cover 25-50(-100)%. Canopy height 10-20 m.7. Mixed bushland (Euclea-Rhus-Acacia-Olea-Carissa-Croton)A rich bushland composed of a variable mixture of Euclea divinorum, Rhus vulgaris, Acacia gerrardii, Olea europea, Carissa edulis, and Croton dichogamous. Canopy cover variable Canopy height 2-4 m.8. Acacia gerrardii woodlandA changing woodland characterized by Acacia gerrardii, usually with considerable Euclea divinorum, occurring on the deep, level, alluvial soils of the central ranch. Canopy cover highly variable, ranging from sites of wooded grassland to almost complete cover. Canopy height also variable. At one time mostly 4-10 m, now mostly 2-4 m.9. Grassy gladesThere are a number of grassy glades scattered throughout the ranch, some of them old bomas (see Young et al., 1995). There are characterized by an almost complete lack of woody cover. When they occur in leleshwa bushland, they are often ringed by a more mixed bushland (type 12).9a. Cultivated land and grass leysThese areas are kept open through cultivation and a rotation that includes a grass ley stage. When in this stage, Rhodes grass (Chloris guyana) is encouraged.10. Wait-a-bit scrubA scrubland of gentle rocky slopes, and sometimes level ground. Appearing in relatively narrow bands throughout the central part of the ranch. Characterized by the presence of Acacia brevispica, often in close associated with Croton dichogamous. Canopy cover 50-75%. Canopy height 1-3 m.Figure 7: Vegetation map; numbers refer to the plant communities as defined in the text11. Leleshwa bushlandA dense bushland composed of nearly pure stands of Tarconanthus camphoratus, other components (usually Euclea and Carissa) accounting for less than 25% of the cover. Canopy cover high (⟩ 75%). Canopy height 2-4 m.12. Leleshwa-Euclea-Carissa bushlandA bushland intermediate between types 11 and 13, and forming a broad band between them. At some sites, Carissa is rare or nearly absent.13. Euclea-Carissa bushlandA bushland dominated by a mixture of Euclea divinorum and Carissa edulis, usually in that order. Canopy cover is highly variable, lower in areas of past burning. Canopy height usually 1-2 m.14. Combretum-(Leleshwa)-Euclea-Carissa wooded bushlandA bushland with emergent Combretum trees. The composition of this bushland varies in two ways. First, leleshwa is common south of the Mukutan, but only penetrates a few kilometres north of the main gorge, whereas Euclea and Carissa occur throughout. Second, the openness of the vegetation varies from none to very open, where it abuts type 15. This openness is probably related to burning. Canopy cover 25-100%. Canopy height 3-6 m.15. Combretum wooded grasslandA grassland with scattered Combretum trees. there are occasional shrub species (particularly Euclea and Carissa), but these account for less than 25 % of the cover. Canopy cover 1-25 %. Canopy height 3-6 m.16. Gorge slope scrubThis vegetation is restricted to the steep slopes of the Mukutan and Kutwa gorges, and their subsidiary gorges, and is comprised of closed thickets of thorny trees and shrubs with some areas of open bushland. Acacia brevispica is common. Typical plants include Euphorbia heterochroma, E. magnicapsula, Cussonia holstii, Boscia angustifolia, Sterculia stenocarpa, Commiphora habessinia, C. samharensis, Acalypha fruticosa, and Plectranthus spp. Because of its relative inaccessibility, this habitat has been little collected. A favourite rhino habitat. Canopy cover 50-100%. Canopy height 2-6(-8) m.Summary and suggestions for future workOn Ol Ari Nyiro ranch, there are both distinct community boundaries, and areas of gradual community change. The most striking community boundaries are these:• Combretum wooded grassland on top of the western ridges is usually very distinct from the Wait-a-bit scrub on the adjacent steep slopes. This is probably due to a sudden change in soil and drainage from the flat tops to the steep slopes, and also to associated differences in herbivory and fire.• The edge of different riverine woodlands is often very sudden. This is due to the very restricted distribution of rich, well-watered riverine soil.• Past burning has resulted in some dramatic community boundaries, visible as distinct mosaics of vegetation types on the northern slopes. Examples of such boundaries can sometimes be seen when driving along a road that has served as a fire break, with very different vegetation on opposite sides of the road.Several topics suggest themselves for future vegetation research in the Ol Ari Nyiro/Mukutan Gorge area.1. Vegetation changeDetailed quantitative descriptions of community structure through time will allow accurate assessments of perceived change. Photographic records of vegetation would also be useful. What species are increasing or decreasing? How are the boundaries of vegetation types changing?2. Experimental studiesExperiments should be set up to examine two major modifiers of vegetation—fire and elephants. Baseline data collected before the experimental plots are established would be compared with vegetation change inside and outside of fire breaks of elephant exclosures over a period of several years.3. Population biology of key speciesVegetation change is a result of changes in the distributions of individual species. Several key species are currently undergoing major changes in their population structure and distribution—Acacia gerrardii and Olea europea are mentioned above. Acacia abyssinica shows an unbalanced age structure. Other species, such as Rhus, are undoubtedly undergoing changes that are less obvious. Detailed population studies of as many key species as possible would be of great value. What factors are affecting population structure? What projections are possible, both into the past and into the future?The rich flora and great vegetation diversity of Ol Ari Nyiro provide unique opportunities for the study of vegetation ecology. This initial vegetation survey and map, and the plant list, can serve as useful references for such studies.PLANT CHECKLISTThis plant list is a compilation based on collections made between 1986 and 1991 by several individuals:Ann RobinsonAR15 specimensCollin LeakeyCL20 specimensDavid OkebiroDO214 specimensJoshua MuasyaJM1223 specimensTimothy OlooTO100 specimensTruman P. YoungTPY268 specimensThe plant check-list presented here include 708 species and subspecies: four fungi, 11 pteridophytes, one gymnosperm, 565 dicotyledons, and 127 monocotyledons. No attempt was made to collect non-vascular plants. The species on this list represent ten percent of the estimated flora of the Republic of Kenya (Beentje, pers. comm.), making Ol Ari Nyiro one of the most diverse non-forest areas in East Africa.This list is not exhaustive, it records probably not more than 80% of plant species occurring study area. Areas like the Mukutan Gorge and much of the western aspect of the ranch are inaccessible due to their steep slopes, though further collecting trips by Museum personnel are planned. An estimated total flora of over 800 species is not unreasonable. One new species was found: Aloe francombei Newton (Newton, 1994), and several specimens remained unmatched.Identifications were confirmed at the Herbarium of National Museums of Kenya, with the help of Flora of Tropical Africa (Polhill et al., 1957-continuing), Agnew and Agnew (1995), Dale and Greenway (1961), and Beentje (1994). The sequence and numbering of families is that of Hutchinson (1934). This is the sequence used in The Flora of West Tropical Africa, and in the East African Herbarium.For each species entry, one collector's number (except for sight records—SR) is given for reference to a collection in the East African Herbarium, although more than one collection may have been made. In the list below, most of the collections by DO were made at the base of the Mukutan gorge.FUNGIClavaria cristata Pers. JM 1667Saprophyte; sporophore 2-5 cm; much branched from ground; stem low, branches divided in branch lets, colour white at first, then smoky grey; deciduous woodland.Termitomyces robustus (Beeli) Heim TPY SRCap 25 cm across, fleshy brownish towards the centre; gills white; termite mounds in bushland; common after rains.Termitomyces schimperi (Pat.) Heim (= T. magoyensis) JM SRCap 22 cm across, fleshy, centre raised, brownish; gills white; termite mounds in bushland, common after rains.Termitomyces sp. TPY 2106No data.PTERIDOPHYTAAdiantaceaeActinopteris semiflabellata Pic.Ser. TPY SRTerrestrial herb, riverineAdiantum poiretii Wikstr. (= A. thalictroides Schlechtend) JM 1827Terrestrial herb; common.Cheilanthes multifida (Swartz) Swartz JM 1828Terrestrial herb; dry forest river banks; common.Pellaea adiantoides (Willd.) J. Sm. JM 1626Terrestial herb; fronds up to 50 cm long; segments 1-2 cm; dry rocky places; common.Pellaea longipilosa Bonap. DO 518Terrestrial herb; fronds up to 30 cm; rocky crevices; common.AspleniaceaeAsplenium aethiopicum (Burm. f.) Burcherer JM 1833Terrestrial herb; rhizome erect; fronds tufted, very variable; dry moist forest; common.Asplenium ?stuhlmannii HieronTerrestrial herb; fronds shortly spaced on long creeping rhizome, erect; rock crevices in grassland; common.Doryopteris kirkii (Hook.) Alston (= D. concolor (Langsd. & Fisch) Kuhn) TPY 2303Terrestrial attractive herb; fronds tufted to 30 cm long; dry forest; common.Pyrrosia schimperiana (Mett.) Alston TPY 2306Terrestrial herb; fronds pendent, flaccid, whitish brown beneath; riverine forest; common.MarsiliaceaeMarsilea gibba A. Br. TPY 2125Aquatic or terrestrial herb; pinna of terrestrial plants clover-loke, usually with crenate margins; seasonal pools and roadside ditches; common.ThelypteridaceaeArthropteris orientalis (Gmel.) Posth. JM 1831Terrestrial herb; fronds 25-40 cm; shady forest; commonGYMNOSPERMAECupressaceaeJuniperus procera Hochst ex Engl. JM 1935Evergreen tree to 40 m; occasional.ANGIOSPERMAEDICOTYLEDONS8 AnnonaceaeUvaria scheffleri Diels DO 579Shrub or small tree; leaves glabrous, dark green; forest edges and rocky slopes; occasional.15 RanunculaceaeClematis brachiata Thunb. (C. hirsuta) JM 1555Climber; leaves with 5-7 suborbicular to ovate leaflets; bushed grassland; occasional.Delphinium macrocentron Olivo. TPY 2334Erect herb; leaves deeply dissected, orbicular; flowers blue to metallic green; rocky grassland; occasional.23 MenispermaceaeChasmanthera dependens Hochst. DO 595Woody tomentose climber; stems almost succulent; Combretum woodland; occasional.28 PiperaceaePeperomia abyssinica Miq. DO 561Herb; trailing at base; stems ascending; fruit asymmetric; forest; common.Peperomia rotundifolia (L.) H.B.K. (= P. blanda) DO 546Succulent herb; leaves orbicular; epiphyte on tree trunks; forest; occasional.36 CapparaceaeBoscia angustifolia A. Rich. DO 497Small spreading tree to 10m; leaves coriaceous; fruits globose; stream banks; occasional.Boscia salicifolia Oliv. JM 1619Tree to 14 m; twigs drooping; leaves very acute at apex; river banks, woodlands; occasional.Capparis tomentosa Lam. DO 507Armed shrub or woody vine to 10 m; leaves elliptic; flowers white; bushland; occasional.Cleome monophylla L. JM 1443Annual herb to 1 m; stems with glandular hairs; flowers pink or mauve; grassland; weed of cultivation and wasteland; common.Cleome usambarica Pax JM 1841Annual herb to 1 m; leaves 3-5 foliolate; flowers pink; stream sides; occasional.Crateva adansonii DC. DO 455Small deciduous tree or shrub; 6-15 m; unarmed; flowers white or yellow; scattered tree grassland; occasional.Gynandropsis gynandra (L.) Briq. JM 1738Annual herb to 1 m; stems glandular; leaves 3&ndash7 foliolate; disturbed ground; common.Maerua angolensis DC. DO 490Shrub or small tree to 10 m; fruits cylindrical; bushland; occasional.Maerua decumbens (Borngn.) De Wolf (= M edulis (Gilg. & Bened.) De Wolf) JM 1968Spreading shrub or bushy woody herb; leaves prominently 3-5 nerved; bushland; occasional.Maerua triphylla A. Rich. JM 1352Shrub or small tree, 5-7.5 m; leaves 1-3 foliolate; flowers white or greenish; bushland, common.39 CruciferaeErucastrum arabicum Fisch. & Mey. JM 1739Pubescent annual; leaves pinnatifid, oblanceolate; flowers yellow; common weed.41 ResedaceaeCaylusea abyssinica (Fresen.) Fisch. & Mey. JM 1505Erect or ascending herb; 15-100 cm; bushland; occasional.42 PolygalaceaePolygala sadebeckiana Guerke JM 1797Perennial herb or shrub; leaves elliptic to oblong; wooded grassland; occasional.Polygala sphenoptera Fresen. JM 1442Perennial or annual shrubby herb; leaves linear, oblong or elliptic; flowers purple or pinkish white; dry bushland, common.45 CrassulaceaeCrassula alsinoides (Hook. f.) Engl. JM 2060Creeping mat-forming perennial herb; stem 4-angled; wet rocky slopes; common.Crassula sp A of Agnew & Agnew TPY 2130Trailing herb; leaves linear; flowers pink to white; pools; occasional.Crassula nodulosa Schoenl JM 1638Perennial herb with ovate-lanceolate rosette leaves; stony grassland; rare.Crassula schimperi Fisch. & Mey. (Crassula pentandra (Edgeworth) Schoenl.) TPY 2180Perennial softly woody herb, trailing at base; flowers pinkish white; stony grassland; occasional.Crassula volkensii Engl. JM 1741Perennial soft shrub or herb; leaves spathulate to elliptic, often marked; flowers white; stony bushland; common.Kalanchoe citrina Schweinf. DO 531Erect pubescent weak perennial; leaves deeply dentate; stony slopes; occasional.Kalanchoe glaucescens Britten DO 559Glabrous perennial; flowers orange yellow to yellow; stony bushland; common.Kalanchoe lanceolata (Forsk.) Pers. DO 613Erect glandular-pubescent annual; flowers yellow to orange-red in a dense corymb; dry bushland; occasional.Kalanchoe prittwitzii Engl. (= K. lugardiz) JM 2059Erect glabrous herb; leaves peltate or auriculate; rocky bushland; uncommon.53 CaryophyllaceaePollichia campestris Ait. JM 1469Straggling shrub or woody perennial; leaves whorled, elliptic to lanceolate; disturbed grassland; common.Silene burchellii D.C. JM 1889Perennial herb; leaves linear acute; flowers pink, cream or purple; grassland; common.54 AizoaceaeGlinus lotoides L. JM 1893Prostrate stellate pubescent annual; leaves spathulate or elliptic; sandy grassland; occasional.Mollugo nudicaulis Lam. TPY 2243Glabrous annual; leaves a rosette, spathulate; flowers pink or red; grassland; uncommon.Tetragonia acanthocarpus Adamson JM 1780Semi-succulent papillose annual herb; flowers greenish to pink; common weed.Zaleya pentandra (L.) Jeffrey JM 1470Sub-succulent annual; flowers subsessile at the nodes, crowded, pinkish; sandy soil; occasional.56 PortulacaceaePortulaca foliosa Ker-Gawl. JM 1582Annual or robust perennial herb or low shrub; leaves subterete; flowers yellow or orange; stony dry grassland; common.Portulaca quadrifida L.Prostrate annual herb; stems rooting at nodes; disturbed ground; occasional.57 PolygonaceaeOxygonum sinuatum (Meisn.) Dammer DO 594Glabrous annual herb; fruits nasty prickly; flowers pink; disturbed ground; common weed.Oxygonum stuhlmannii Dammer JM 2140Perennial creeper; flowers white; leaves sheathing at base; grassland on stony soils; occasional.Polygonum senegalense Meisn. JM 1944Softly perennial shrub; stems with stipular sheaths; riversides; common.59 PhytolaccaceaePhytolacca dodecandra L'Herit JM 1773Climbing scrambling or erect shrub; leaves ovate-elliptic; flowers yellowish; bushland; occasional.Phytolacca octandra L. JM 1999Shrub with lanceloate-elliptic leaves; flowers yellowish; waste places; uncommon.61 Chenopodiaceae (all species introduced)Chenopodium album L. JM 1396Annual herb; leaves rhombic to lanceolate; weed of cultivation.Chenopodium ambrosioides L. JM 1726Strongly aromatic annual herb; flowers small, sessile; weed of cultivation and disturbed ground; common.Chenopodium murale L. JM 1507Annual herb; leaves variable, usually rhombi-ovate, toothed; weed of cultivation; disturbed ground; common.Chenopodium opulifolium Koch & Ziz. JM 1730Annual or perennial herb; often woody below; weed of cultivation.Chenopodium schraderianum Schult. JM 1415Erect glandular pubescent annual herb; leaves elliptic to oblong, pinnatifid; waste places and settlements; common.63 AmaranthaceaeAchyranthes aspera L. var. sicula L. JM 1447Annual or perennial herb or low shrub; flowers less than 5 mm long, spicate; forest edges; common.Achyranthes aspera L. var. pubescens (Maq.) Townsend JM 1758Similar to A. aspera var. sicula but flowers more than 5 mm long.Aerva lanata (L.) Schultes JM 1659Erect or trailing herb; flowers crowded, axillary, woolly; common weed. Alternanthera pungens Kunth DO 461Annual herb; stems prostrate, hairy; fruits spiny; bushland; common.Alternanthera sessilis (L.) DC. JM 1398Low herb rooting at the nodes; stems ascending; riversides; occasional.Amaranthus graecizans L. ssp silvestris (Vill.) Brenan JM 1778Erect sparsely pubescent annual; inflorescence axillary; disturbed places; common.Amaranthus hybridus L. ssp hybridus JM 1721Erect glabrous annual herb; inflorescence with a 'spiny' look; leaves rhombic, cuneate; disturbed places; common.Amaranthus hybridus L. ssp cruentus (L.) Thell. JM 1512Similar to A. hybrides ssp hybrides but inflorescence without a spiny look.Cyathula orthacantha (Asch.) Schinz DO 453Annual herb; inflorescence pendunculate; cymes sessile; leaves ovate-elliptic or orbicular; disturbed ground; uncommon.Digera muricata (L.) Mart. var. macroptera C.C. Townsend DO 504Erect annual, often very tall, unbranched below; leaves linear to lanceolate; grassland; common.Psilotrichum elliotii Baker JM 1392Perennial shrub or scrambler; leaves ovate to orbicular; flowers green; open bushland; common.64 BasellaceaeBasella alba L. JM 1862Glabrous herb; leaves ovate, slightly fleshy; flowers white; riverine forest; common.6S LinaceaeLinum volkcensii Engl.Erect annual herb; leaves alternate, linear-lanceolate; flowers yellow; marshes; occasional.66 ZygophyllaceaeTribulus terrestris L. TPY SRProstrate herb; fruits spiny; sandy soils and roadsides; common.67 GeraniaceaeGeranium ocellatum Cambess JM 1662Diffusely branched annual herb with spreading hairs; leaves palmatisect; shade; forest edges; common.Monsonia angustifolia A. Rich. JM 1781Annual erect herb; flowers 2-3 per penduncle; leaves narrowly oblong; grassland; occasional.Monsonia longipes R. Kunth. JM 1691Perennial herb; leaves mostly opposite and hastate; grassland; occasional.Pelargonium alchemilloides (L.) Ait. JM 1580Perennial herb; rootstock slightly tuberous; leaves orbicular, 5-7-lobed; hill slopes; common.69 OxalidaceaeBiophytum abyssinicum A. Rich. TPY 2155Annual herb; leaves in a rosette, sensitive, pinnate; disturbed sandy grassland; occasional.Biophytum petersianum Klotsch JM 1606Similar to B. abyssinicum except for the stiffer leaflets; grassland; occasional.Oxalis corniculata L. (= Oxalis radicosa A. Rich.) JM 1538Annual or perennial much branched herb; leaves trifoliate; flowers yellow; forest clearings and disturbed ground; common.Oxalis obliquifolia A. Rich. JM 1811Bulbous herb, rhizome vertical bearing a basal bulb and apical rosette of leaves, flowers pink or purple; shallow soils and grassland; occasional.72 LythraceaeNesaea erecta G. & P. TPY 2360Glabrous annual herb; leaves narrowly elliptic to oblanceolate; flowers lilac or magenta; wet shallow soils; common.Nesaea kilimandscharica Koehne JM 1882Perennial herb; leaves lanceolate; flowers terminal; grassland; uncommon. 76 OliniaceaeOlinia rochetiana A. Juss. (O. usambarensis) JM 1956Shrub, small or large forest tree to 30 m; bark flakes yellowish; leaves opposite, reddish when young; dry forest; occasional.81 ThymelaceaeGnidia subcordata Meisn. (= Englerodaphne subcordata (Meisn.) Engl.) JM 1390Much branched shrub to 3.5 m; leaves opposite; flowers white; bushland; occasional.83 NyctaginaceaeCommicarpus plumbagineus (Cav.) Stand DO 506Shortly pubescent trailing herb; flowers white; glands stalked on the fruit; bushed grassland; common.84 ProteaceaeFaurea rochetiana (A. Rich.) Pic. Ser. (= F. speciosa) JM 1904Tree to 11 m; bark deep grey and fissured; wet scattered tree grassland; common.Protea gaguedi J.F. Gmel. JM 1984Shrub or tree to 5 m; branch lets pilose when young; flower heads up to 10 cm diameter, infertile; stony soil; occasional.88 PittosporaceaePittosporum vividiflorum Sims JM 1552Tree to 20 m; leaves glabrous, oblanceolate or elliptic to l0 x 2.5 cm; flowers creamy, white; forest; occasional.93 FlacourtiaceaeOncoba spinosa Forssk. DO 521Small tree to 7 m; spines straight, axillary to 7.5 cm; forest; occasional.Rawsonia lucida Harv. & Sond. JM 1843Small tree to 13 m; leaf margin serrate and spinulose; forest; common.Trimeria grandifolia (Hochst.) Warb. ssp. tropica (Burkill) Sleumer JM 1496Shrub; leaves ovate, elliptic or obovate to 7.5 x 6 cm; fruit 3-valved capsule; bushland; common.95 CanellaceaeWarburgia ugandensis Sprague JM 1914Forest tree to 50 m; leaves simple, entire, pellucid-punctate, ovate to oblanceolate; flowers green; dry evergreen forest; occasional at Ngelesha forest.101 PassifloraceaeAdenia sp. TPY SRClimber with tendrils; bushland; uncommon.103 CucurbitaceaeCotcinea grandis (L.) Voigt DO 595Perennial; rootstock tuberous; stem corky; leaves reniform; bushland; uncommon.Corallocarpus epigaeus (Rottl.) C.B.CI. JM 2200Climber; leaves palmatifid; bushland; uncommon.Cucumis aculeatus Cogn. JM 1347Perennial herb; stem with spiny yellow hooked hairs; fruits green, yellow when ripe, tuberculate; grassland; common.Cucumis ficifolius A. Rich. JM 1727Perennial usually prostrate herb; leaves very rough, hairy above and below, palmately 3-5-lobed; grassland; occasionalGerrardanthus lobatus (Cogn.) C. Jeffrey DO 612Perennial climber; rootstock swollen and succulent; rocky places; occasional.Kedrostis leloja (Forsk.) C. Jeffrey (K. hirtella (Naud.) Cogn.) JM 1599Perennial climber, tendrils bifid; leaves palmatifid; bushland; occasional.Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standley JM 2006Climbing herb; tendrils bifid; leaves with glands at the base of lamina; bushland; occasional.Oreosyce africana Hook.f. JM1607Perennial climber; leaves pentagonal or shallowly lobed; forest; common.Trochomeria macrocarpa (Sond.) Hook.f. JM 2220Climber or trailing herb from a woody rootstock; leaves ± orbicular, palmatifid; grassland; common.107 CactaceaeOpuntia cochenillifera (L.) Mill. (= O. vulgaris L.?) (exotic) JM 1718Spiny succulent shrub to 4 m; trunks cylindrical, jointed, to 20 cm broad; fruits red; bushland; occasional.Opuntia exaltata A. Berger (exotic) JM SRShrub, very spiny; used as a living fence.114 OchnaceaeOchna holstii Engl. JM 1939Tree to 30 m; trunk to 30 cm diameter; flowers yellow; leaves with closely serrulate margin and acute apices; forest; common.Ochna inermis (Forssk.) Schweinf. DO 486Shrub; leaves small, broadly elliptic to rotund to 2.5 cm; forest; common.Ochna insculpta Sleumer JM 1404Shrub or small tree to 10 m; leaves acuminate to acute; forest; common.Ochna ovata F. Hoffrn. TOGlabrous shrub or small tree; leaf venation closely reticulate and prominent above in age; dry forest edges/bushland; occasional.118 MyrtaceaeSyzygium cordatum Krauss JM 1980Shrub or tree, 4-10 m; sometimes to 17m; leaves leathery; flowers white; fruit reddish purple; near water; occasional.Syzygium guineense (Willd.) D.C. JM 1483Tree 6-12 m, sometimes to 30 m; leaves glandular punctate; flowers white, sessile; riparian forest; common.Syzygium cordatum x S. guineense (hybrid) TPY SRCharacters intermediate between the two species.121 CombretaceaeCombretum apiculatum Sond. JM 1964Shrub to 3 m; leaves opposite, shortly petiolate, apex reflexed, apiculate; stony hill slopes; common.Combretum molle G. Don JM 1431Tree to 14 m; young twigs rusty tomentose; leaves velvety tomentose; flowers yellow; stony soil; common.Terminalia brownii Fresen. JM 1553Tree often growing on stony outcrops; fruits winged, purplish red; occasional.123 HypericaceaeHypericum annulatum Moris JM 1661Perennial herb; bracts glandular hairy; stony grassland; occasional.Hypericum sp. nr. annulatum Moris JM 1634Perennial herb; leaves opposite; grassland; uncommon.126 GuttiferaeGarcinia livingstonei T. Anders. JM 1867Shrub or tree to 30 m; leaves and branchlets usually in whorls of three; riparian forest; uncommon.128 TiliaceaeCorchorus trilocularis L. DO 189Herbaceous or woody annual; wet areas; occasional.Grewia bicolor A. Juss. JM 1622Much branched shrub or tree to 10m; leaves asymmetrical, margin serrulate; flowers yellow; bushed grassland; common.Grewia sp. nr. mollis A. Juss. TOShrub to 3 m; bark black, fissured; bushland; uncommon.Grewia similis K. Schum. JM 1395Shrub to 2 m; young shoots and inflorescence bristly pubescent; dry scrub; occasional.Grewia tembensis Fresen. var. kakothamnos (K. Shum.) Burret DO 628Shrub; leaf margin dentate serrulate; flowers white with a purplish tinge; dry bushland; common.Grewia trichocarpa A. Rich. DO 21Shrub or tree to 7 m; leaves thin, papery; bushed grassland; occasional.Triumfetta flavescens A. Rich. DO 496Shrub; branches covered by black dots; bushland; common.Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq.Herb or undershrub; leaves ovate to ovate-lanceolate, often 3-1obed; grassland; common.Triumfetta sp. TPY 2153Herb; grassland.130 SterculiaceaeDombeya burgessiae Gerrard JM 1506Forest undershrub or small tree; leaves denticulate, cordate; flowers white or pink; dry upland forest; common.Dombeya rotundifolia (Hochst.) Planch. TPY SRShrub or tree usually 2-5 m, sometimes 7 m; leaves coriaceous; grassland; occasional.Dombeya torrida (J.F. Geml.) P. Bamps ssp torrida (= D. faucicola K. Schum.)Shrub to 4 m; leaves shortly acuminate; bushed grassland; occasional.Melhania sp. nov.? JM SRWoody herb; leaves hairy; woodlands; rare.Melhania ovata (Cav.) Spreng JM 1474Woody herb or low shrub; flowers axillary, 1-3, sulphur yellow; grassland; common.Melhania velutina Forssk. JM 1438Rusty tomentose erect woody annual or loose perennial herb; flowers axillary, 1-4, yellow; grassland; common.Sterculia stenocarpa H. Winkler DO 495Tree to 7 m; mature follicles subcylindric-fusiform, curved, tomentose inside; bushland; occasional.Waltheria indica L. JM 1394Woody annual herb; stellate pubescent; flowers yellow; disturbed ground; occasional.132 MalvaceaeAbutilon holstii JM 1681Shrub; leaves velvety tomentose, broadly elliptic, acuminate; flowers yellow to orange; open woodland; occasional.Abutilon mauritianum (Jacq.) Medic. JM 2177Woody shrub; flowers solitary, yellow gold; woodland edges; common.Azanza garckeana (F. Hoffm.) Excell & Hillcoat JM 1524Shrub or small tree; leaves shallowly lobed; bushland; occasional.Hibiscus aethiopicus L. JM 1560Low herb; flowers bright yellow; hard clay grassland; occasional.Hibiscus aponeurus Sprague & Hutch. JM 1383Perennial woody herb; flowers crimson; grassland; occasional.Hibiscus articulatus Hochst. DO 558Perennial herb; flowers axillary, yellow; burnt grassland; rare.Hibiscus calyphyllus Cav. JM 1545Shrub; flowers yellow with maroon centre; woodland; common.Hibiscus cannabinus L. JM 1887Annual with small spines on stems; grassland; occasional.Hibiscus diversifolius Jacq. TPY 2311Shrub; flowers yellow; grassland; occasional.Hibiscus fuscus Garcke JM 1894Woody herb or shrub with black-brown stellate hairs; disturbed ground; common.Hibiscus lobatus (Murr.) Kuntze DO 588Annual; 45 cm; flowers white; leaves variable, serrate, entire to deeply 3 lobed; Combretum bushland; occasional.Hibiscus lunariifolius Willd. TOPerennial shrub; flowers white, becoming pink; grassland; occasional.Hibiscus trionum L. JM 1666Annual herb; flowers yellow; disturbed grassland; occasional.Hibiscus vitifolius L. JM 1432Shrub with spreading branches, glandular; edges of forest; common.Malva verticillata L. JM 1465Annual; leaves circular; weed of wastelands; common.Pavonia elegans Boiss. JM 1543Shrub; flowers yellow turning pink; Combretum woodland; common.Pavonia patens (Andr.) Chiov. JM 1400Shrub; stellate pubescent; flowers yellow; forest margin; common.Sida ovata Forssk. JM 2184Shrubby perennial, densely pubescent; grassland; common.Sida rhombifolia L. JM 1945Perennial; flowers yellow; disturbed ground; occasional.Sida schimperiana Hochst. ex A. Rich. (= S. cuneifolia) JM 1413Spreading low shrub; flowers yellow; grassland; common.Sida tenuicarpa Vollesen (= S. cuneifolia) JM 1735Much branched low woody shrub to 30 cm; flowers yellow; leaves cuneate; bushed grassland; common.133 MalpighiaceaeCaucanthus auriculatus (Radlk.) Nied. DO 568Climbing and twining shrub; bushland, evergreen forest, woodland; common.136 EuphorbiaceaeAcalypha fruticosa Forssk var. fruticosa DO 516Much branched shrub or small tree; stems brown; rocky riverbanks; occasional.Acalypha racemosa Baill. JM 1826Perennial herb or subshrub, 0.5-3 m; riverine; occasional.Acalypha volkensii Pax JM 1672Prostrate or ascending woody herb or subshrub; forest; occasional.Bridelia micrantha (Hochst.) Baill. JM 1823Shrub or much branched tree; branches pendulous; riverine forest; common.Clutia abyssinica Jaub. & Sprach JM 1527Woody herb shrub or small tree; leaves turn orange with age; forest edges; common.Croton dichogamus Pax JM 1445Shrub or small tree; young twigs densely silvery or brown lepidote; bushland; occasional.Croton macrostachyus Del. JM 1925Shrub or spreading tree to 25 m; secondary forest and rivers; occasional.Croton megalocarpus Hutch. JM 1368Tree to 35 m; leaves pale beneath; evergreen forest; occasional.Drypetes gerrardii Hutch. var. gerrardii DO SRShrub or tree to 20 m; bark grey, granulated; flowers yellow; forest, riverine; occasional.Erythrococca bongensis Pax JM 1819Shrub or small tree to 6 m; forest edges; riverine; common.Erythrococca fischeri Pax TPY 2161Much branched shrub or small tree 2-3 m tall; forest edges; common.Euphorbia brevicornu Pax (= E. repetita A. Rich.) TPY SRPerennial or annual herb to 2 m; leaves densely crowded and leaving prominent scars; sessile; open forest in shade; occasional.Euphorbia candelabrum Kotschy JM SRTree to 17 m with crowded mass of candelabra-like branches; woodland, rocky hill slopes; occasional.Euphorbia crotonoides Boiss. JM 1618Succulent herb to 5-100 cm; stems woody below, upper part of stem longitudinally ridged; latex producing; disturbed soils; occasional.Euphorbia cyparissoides Pax JM 1936Perennial herb; rootstock woody, 1-2 cm thick; leaves sessile, linear-lanceolate; grassland/open woodland; occasional.Euphorbia gossypina Pax JM 1719Succulent spineless bush; stems slender, yellow-green, in masses; flowers yellow-green; dry bushland; occasional.Euphorbia heterochroma Pax ssp. tsavoensis S. Carter JM 1637Succulent shrub 2 m; stems root where they touch the ground; branches 4-angled; spiny; stony soils; occasional.Euphorbia heterospina S. Carter ssp baringoensis S. Carter DO 487Succulent shrub to 3.5 m; branches 4-5-angled, 1-2 cm thick; sandy stony soils; occasional.Euphorbia inaequilatera Sond. var. inaequilatera JM 1466Much branched prostrate herb; leaf bases obliquely rounded, margin serrate; open patches amongst grasses; common.Euphorbia magnicapsula S. Carter var. lacertosa S. Carter DO 662Tree 3-6 m tall; rarely branched; bark marked with pit scars; rocky slopes; occasional.Euphorbia nyikae Pax TPY SRTree to 7 m; trunk marked by 4-6 vertical rows of spines; branches 2-5 angled; woodland; rare.Euphorbia schimperiana Scheele JM 1652Herb to 2 m; stem or whole plant sometimes tinged reddish purple; leaves sessile; forest edges; occasional.Margaritaria discoidea (Baill.) Webster JM 1528Tree to 25 m; bark thickly covered with lenticels; flowers greenish; fruits lobed; forest edges; occasional.Micrococca mercurialis (L.) Benth. DO 637Annual herb to 60 cm; leaves crenate, membranaceous; lateral nerves 4-7 pairs; open places in woodland; occasional.Monadenium schubei (Pax) N.E. Br. JM SRSucculent perennial herb to 90 cm with cylindric-conical tubercles bearing leaves; rocky grassland; occasional.Phyllanthus fischeri Pax TOAnnual or perennial herb or many stemmed subshrub to 3m when supported; stems reddish brown tinges; forest, riverine; occasional.Phyllanthus maderaspatensis L. JM 1508Woody perennial herb; stems reddish; wooded grassland; occasional.Phyllanthus nummulariifolius Poir. JM 2161Semi-proatrate, decumbent of erect woody herb or shrub to 4.5 m, commonly uch less; leave suborbicular-obovate; flowers cream or whitish, fruits depressed, trilobate-subglobose; wooded grassland; common.Phyllanthus reticulatus Poir. JM 2125Shrub or small tree; leaves alternate; branchlets usually from short stem extensions; flowers green; fruits axillary, green to brown, bluish when ripe; river banks; occasional.Phyllanthus rotundifolius Willd. JM 1641Annual or perennial herb, 10-45 cm; stems angular; fruits 1mm long, 2mm diameter; bushed rocky grassland; common.Phyllanthus sepialis Muell. Arg. JM 1408Open branched shrub to 3 m; branches somewhat angular when young; riverine; occasional.Ricinus communis L. (escape) JM SRPerennial, bushy tree-like; leaves long petiolated, palmately lobed; fruits with stout spine-like projections; disturbed ground, cultivated.Synadenium pereskiifolium (Ball.) Guill. (= S. glaucescens Pax) JM 1717Bush or shrubby tree to 9 m; leaf base tapering to a winged petiole; sand stony soils; rare.Tragiella natalensis (Sond.) Pax and K. DO 522Creeping urticating perennial herb; forest edges, forest undergrowth; ccasional.146 CaesalpiniaceaeChamaecrista fallacina (Chiov.) Lock (Cassia fallacina) TPY 2349Perennial herb or subshrub; stems prostrate; leaflets sessile; flowers yellow; grassland; rare.Chamaecrista hildebrandtii (Vatke) Lock (Cassia hildebrandtii) JM 1379Perennial herb; stems prostrate or erect, densely pubescent; wooded grassland; occasional.Chamaecrista mimosoides (L.) Greene (Cassia mimosoides) JM 1689Herb, prostrate to erect; leaves linear to linear-oblong; flowers yellow; forest margin; occasional.Chamaecrista nigricans (Vahl) Greene (Cassia nigricans) DO 605Annual herb; petiole with sessile gland at the top; flowers yellow; grassland; occasional.Chamaecrista usambarensis (Taubert) Standley (Cassia usambarensis)Perennial herb forming a carpet; petals yellow, orange; grassland; occasional.Pterolobium stellatum (Forssk.) Brenan JM 2039Scrambling or climbing shrub or vine 2-15m; stems armed with reflexed prickles, paired at nodes; flowers scented; fruits scarlet samaras; riverine; occasional.Senna didymobotrya (Fresen.) Irwin & Bameby (Cassia didymobotrya) JM 1960Shrub 0.5-4.5 m; leaves compound 10-30 cm; flowers bright yellow; grassland; occasional.Senna occidentalis (L.) Link (Cassia occidentalis) JM 1771Erect herb, 15-200 cm; flowers yellow; weed of cultivation; grassland; occasional.Senna singueana (Del.) Lock (Cassia singueana) JM 1370Shrub or small tree 1-15 m; each pair of leaflets with a gland; flowers yellow; woodland; common.Tamarindus indica L. DO 505Tree 3-24 m; crown rounded; leaflets asymmetric at base; flower buds red; pods sausagelike; wooded grassland; occasional.147 MimosaceaeAcacia abyssinica [Hochst ex] Benth. ssp calophylla Brenan JM 1978Tree, flat topped, 6-15 m; bark rough, fissured; corolla reddish; wooded grassland; common.Acacia sp. or. binerva (Wendl.) Macbr. (exotic) JM 2019Unarmed tree to 7 m; leaves bipinnate, oftem modified to phyllodes; cultivated at Ngelesha.Acacia brevis pica Harms JM 1362Shrub or small tree, 1-7 m; bark grey; prickles scattered, recurved; flowers white; bushland; common.Acacia gerrardii Benth. var. gerrardii JM 1888Shrub or tree, 3-15 m; crown flat, umbrella shaped; flowers white or cream; wooded grassland; common.Acacia hockii De Wild. TO SRShrub or tree 2-6 m; bark red brown to greenish peeling in papery layers; flowers bright yellow; bushland; occasional.Acacia melanoxylon R. Br. (exotic) JM 1963Evergreen unarmed tree to 10m; flowers yellow; cultivated.Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth. ssp mellifera DO 494Shrub or small tree, 1-6 m; petiole usually glandular; flowers cream to white; dry scrub with trees; occasional.Acacia nilotica (L.) [Wild. ex.] Del. ssp subalata (Vatke) Brenan DO 447Tree, 2.5-14 m; bark on trunk rough, fissured, blackish, grey-brown; flowers bright yellow; pod margins crenate; wooded grassland.Acacia persiciflora Pax JM 1883Tree, 4.5-9 m; bark brownish yellow scaling off in vertical strips; wooded grassland; occasional.Acacia seyal Del. var. seyal JM 1724Tree 3-9 m; bark or trunk powdery, white to greenish yellow or orange red; wooded grassland; occasional.Acacia xanthophloea Benth. JM SRTree 10-25 m; bark or trunk lemon-co loured to greenish yellow; riverine; common.Albizia grandibracteata Taub. DO SRTree, 6-30 m; crown rounded or flat; bark smooth or pock-marked at base; corolla pink to white; forest, riverine; occasional.Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight & Am. TOShrub or small tree 1-8 m; spines terminating short lateral spreading twigs often with leaves and flowers; bushland; occasional.148 PapilionaceaeAeschynomene abyssinica (A. Rich.) Vatke JM 1920Herb; leaflets 6-14 pairs; asymmetric; flowers yellow, small; bushland; occasional.Antopetitia abyssinica A. Rich. TPY 2245Spreading annual; pods segmented, 2-5 seeded; grassland; occasional.Colutea abyssinica Kunth & Bouche JM 1916Shrub, 4m; stipules triangular; pods papery; forest margin; occasional.Crotalaria agatiflora Schweinf. ssp. agatiflora JM 1970Woody bushy herb, 1 m; glabrous; flowers "bird" shaped, bright yellow; grassland; occasional.Crotalaria agatiflora Schweinf. ssp imperialis (Taub.) Polhill JM 1902Woody bush herb, 2 m; pubescent; flowers "bird" shaped, yellow; grassland; occasional.Crotalaria anthyllopsis Bak. JM 1749Annual; stem short, erect to 60 cm; leaves unifoliolate; bushland; occasional.Crotalaria brevidens Benth. var. intermedia (Kotschy) Polhill JM 1407Annual or short-lived perennial, 1.5 m; leaflets 3, linear to lanceolate; grassland; occasional.Crotalaria fascicularis PolhillShrub or bushy perennial herb, 1.5 m; leaves crowded on short shoots; forest margin; occasional.Crotalaria incana L. JM 1405Woody herb to 1.5 m; stem with long yellowish hairs; grassland; occasional.Crotalaria keniensis Bak. f. JM 1932Herb, 1.5 m; racemes terminal, leaf opposed; bushland; occasional.Crotalaria laburnifolia L.Perennial bushy herb to 2 m; bushland; occasional.Crotalaria lachnocarpoides Engl. JM 1492Perennial woody herb to 2 m; silk tomentose; grassland; occasional.Crotalaria lachnophora A. Rich. TPY 2342Perennial bushy herb to 3 m; branches ribbed; bushland; occasional.Crotalaria natalitia Meissn. var. natalitia JM 1962Woody herb to 2.5 m; branches ribbed; leaves crowded on short shoots; bushland; occasional.Crotalaria spinosa Benth. JM 1809Spreading annual to 30 cm; spiny; grassland; occasional.Crotalaria vallicola Bak. f. M 1635Bushy annual to 60 cm; racemes subsessile; bushland; occasional.Dolichos oliveri Schweinf. DO 627Perennial shrub or woody herb; stems angular; leaflets 3, pale beneath; grassland; occasional.Eriosema jurionianum Stanner & DeCraene JM 1961Woody herb; leaves trifoiate, nerves prominent below; flowers yellow with dark veins; grassland with scattered trees; occasional.Eriosema nutans Schinz JM 1761Perennial herb, 0.2-1.5 m; branches densely covered by spreading white to ferruginous hairs; grassland; occasional.Eriosema shirense Bak. f. JM 1629Herb; rootstock tuberous; leaflets 1-3(-4); grasslands; occasional.Erythrina abyssinica Lam. JM 1772Tree, 2-15 m; bark yellowish brown, corky deeply fissured; spines woody; flowers when leafless; woodland; occasional.Indigolera ambelacensis Schweinf. JM 1675Annual, erect or spreading; stipules linear; leaflets 5-11; grassland; occasional.Indigolera arrecta A. Rich. JM 1974Woody herb, 1-2 m; stems ridged; pods slightly tetragonal; bushland; occasional.Indigolera atriceps Hook.f. ssp. kaessneri (Bak. f.) Bak. f. JM 2036Erect herb to 2 m; biramous hairs brown or black except on leaflets; forest margin; occasional.Indigolera brevicalyx Bak. f.Perennial; branches prostrate; tap root woody; leaflets 5-13 with dark crimson processes in their axils; bushed grassland; occasional.Indigolera circinella Bak. f. TPY 2167Herb with stout perennial tap root; fruits spirally coiled; grassland; occasional.Indigofera emarginella A. Rich. JM 1972Woody shrub; stems ribbed; stipules triangular; racemes densely blackish brown strigulose; forest margins; common.Indigolera garkeana Vatke JM 1534Woody shrub to 3 m; stems 3-4 angles or winged; woodland; occasional.Indigolera hochstetteri Bak. JM 1788Annual to 50 cm; stems ridged; stipules subulate; open grassland; common.Indigolera schimperi Jaub. & Spach. var. barkeana (Vatke) Gillett TOPerennial herb; rootstock woody; stems with silvery indumentum; grassland; occasional.Indigolera secundiflora Poir. TPY 2343Stout erect annual to 130 cm; flowers all turned to one side; wet sites; occasional.Indigolera spicata Forssk. JM 1467Prostrate or ascending herb; stems ridged, somewhat flattened; fruits reflexed; disturbed grassland; common.Indigolera swaziensis Bolus var. swaziensis JM 1926Woody shrub to 3 m; stems ribbed; stipules triangular; forest margin; common.Indigofera tanganyikensis Bak. f. var. strigulosior Gillett JM 1363Erect much branched shrub let to 1 m; young branches densely pubescent; stipules brownish, triangular; stony grassland; occasional.Indigolera trita Linn. f. var. subulata (Poir.) Ali JM 1950Erect woody herb, 1-2 m; stems ridged; fruits pointed; secondary growth; occasional.Indigolera volkensii Taub. JM 1445Herb to 40 cm; leaflets 3-7, alternate; pod rather tetragonal; scattered tree grassland; occasional.Indigofera sp. JM 2185Woody herb 30 cm high; leaves compound; wooded grassland, occasional.Macrotyloma axillare (E. Mey.) Verdc. var. glabrum (E. Mey.) JM 2037Perennial climbing herb to 3.5 m long; stems with sparse hairs; open forest; common.Medicago laciniata (L.) Mill. JM 1657Spreading annual; leaflets small, toothed; seasonally waterlogged areas; common.Neonotonia (Glycine) wightii (Wight & Am.) Lackey ssp wightii var. longicauda (Schweinf.)Verde. DO 615Perennial climbet; wood at the base to 4.5 m long; inflorescence lax; grassland; common.Ormocarpum trachycarpum (Taub.) Harms JM 1491Shrub or small tree 1-6 m; bark soft, corky; twigs whitish; woodland; occasional.Rhynchosia elegans A. Rich. var. elegans JM & TPY 2050Perennial climbing herb to 2.5 m long from a woody rootstock; bushland; occasional.Rhynchosia usambarensis Taub. var. usambarensis JM 2143Perennial climbing herb to 1.8 m; stems with yellow hairs; forest edges; occasional.Stylosanthes fruticosa (Retz.) Alson JM 1632Woody herb or sub shrub, sometimes protrate, glandular; grassland; common.Tephrosia emeroides A. Rich. JM 1358Woody erect perennial 0.5-2.5 m; flowers pink, terminal; bushland; common.Tephrosia interrupta Engl. ssp interrupta JM 1951Woody shrub to 3 m; young stems pubescent; scrub margin; occasional.Tephrosia lurida Sond. TOPerennial; rootstock woody; stems protrate or ascending; pods ascending, slightly upcurved, bushland, occasional.Tephrosia vogelii Hook. f. JM 2024Woody branching herb, 1-4 m; stems tomentose; forest margin; occasional.Tephrosia sp. JM 1763Climber or twiner; stems brownish; leaves trifoliate, pale beneath; nerves reticulated beneath, prominent; wooded grassland; uncommon.Trifolium cryptopodium A. Rich. JM 1949Perennial herb; stems creeping in their lower portions, rooting at the nodes, often forming mats, inflorescence hemispherical, corolla purple; grassland and moist forest openings; occasional.Trifolium semipilosum Fresen var. semipilosum TPY 2187Perennial herb with strong tap root; roots at nodes; grassland near forests; common.Vigna frutescens A. Rich. CL 9Perennial prostrate or climbing herb to 1.5 m long; grassland; common.Vigna membranacea A. Rich. ssp membranaceaAnnual climbing herb; leaflets acuminate; bushland; common.Vigna membranacea A. Rich. ssp caesia (Chiov.) Verdc. JM & TY 2052Perennial climbing herb; leaflets very obtuse to acute; bushland; occasional.Vigna vexillata (L.) Verdc. JM 1569Perennial climbing herb to 6m long from narrow woody rootstock; grassland; common.Zornia glochidiata D.C. DO 604Annual herb, erect to prostrate; leaves 2-foliolate; flowers yellow; grassland; common.Zornia setosa Bak. f. ssp obovata (Bak. f.) J. Leon & Milne-Redh. JM 1687Perennial herb; stems prostrate; leaves 4-foliolate; petals yellow, pink, blood-red or mauve; grassland; common.151 HamamelidaceaeTrichocladus ellipticus Eckl. & Zeyher ssp malosanus (Bak.) Verdc. JM 1842Shrub or thicket forming tree to 12 m; lower surface of leaves silver-buff; flowers yellow; montane forest; common at Ngelesha forest.165 UlmaceaeChaetacme aristata Planch. DO 526Thorny bush or spreading tree to 10m; branch lets zig-zag, drooping; forest; occasional.167 MoraceaeDorstenia hildebrandtii Engl. var. schlechteri (Engl.) Hijman JM 1839Semi-succulent herb, rooting at nodes; produces latex; riverine; common.Ficus glumosa Del. DO 528Tree to 10m; leaves stiffly papery or coriaceous; rocky slopes; occasional.Ficus ingens (Miq.) Miq. DO SRTree to 10 m; bark grey; leaf base cordate; dry bushed grassland; occasional.Ficus natalensis Hochst. DO 529Tree or epiphyte to 10m, frequently with aerial roots; wet rocky slopes; occasional.Ficus sycomorus L. DO 449Tree to 25 m found near streams; bark powdery, yellow-green or grey; riverine; occasional.Ficus thonningii Blume AR 4112Tree to 10m, low branched; aerial roots present; bushed grassland; occasional.Ficus ?vasta Forssk. JM 1849Tree to 8 m; leaves broadly ovate, pubescent; rocky slopes; rare.169 UrticaceaeGirardinia diversfolia (Link) Friis (= G. condensata Wedd.) DO 658Single stemmed tall herb, 0.5 m; leaves deeply lobed; forest undergrowth; occasional.Girardinia bullosa Wedd.Single stemmed tall stinging herb, 2 m; leaves sub-orbicular; marshes; occasional.Obetia radula (Bak.) Jackson (=O. pinnatifida Baker) DO SRFleshy stemmed shrub or tree to 8 m with the habit of pawpaw; riverine forest; occasional.173 CelastraceaeHippocratea sp. DO 569Woody liane; riverine forest; uncommon.Maytenus arbutifolia (Hochsl. ex A. Rich.) Wilczek JM 1434Armed shrub, 3 m; much branched; fruits trigonous; near rivers and streams; common.Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Excell JM 1436Shrub or tree to 8 m; branchlets armed or unarmed; spines bear leaves and flowers; grassland; common.Mystroxylon (Cassine) aethiopicum (Thunb.) Loes. JM 1401Bush or tree to 17 m; slash blood-red; leaves serrate-dentate to entire; riparian; occasional.179 IcacinaceaeApodytes dimidiata Am. var. acutifolia A. Rich. JM 1369Tree to 23 m; bark smooth, grey-white; flowers small, white; forest edges; common.182 OlacaceaeXimenia americana L. var. caffra JM 1737Shrub or tree to 7 m; bark dark brown to black; slash crimson; spines straight; bushed grassland; occasional.183 OpiliaceaeOpilia amentacea Roxb. DO 523Liana; flower spikes yellow-green; stem corky; riparian; occasional.185 LoranthaceaePhragmanthera usuiensis (Oliv.) M. Gilbert (P. rufescens) JM 1942Parasitic stellate tomentose plant; bushland; occasional.185/A ViscaceaeViscum tuberculatum A. Rich. JM 1565Parasitic; leaves yellowish; dry woodland; common.186 SantalaceaeOsyridicarpos schimperianus (A. Rich.)D.C JM 1541Straggling undershrub; stems ridged; leaves elliptic to lanceolate; bushland; occasional.Osyris lanceoloata Hochsl. & Steudel (O. abyssinica) JM 1488Shrub or small tree; flowers small, yellow-green or green; fruit a bright red drupe; grassland; occasional.Thesium sp A of Agnew & Agnew JM 1715Herb; leaves flat, subulate; flowers pedicellate; upland grassland; occasional.190 RhamnaceaeHelinus integrifolius (Lam.) Kuntze DO 478Perennial climbing shrub; leaf base subcordate; fruit glabrous; bushland; occasional.Helinus mystacinus (Ait.) Steud. TPY 2252Similar to H. integrifolius except fruits hairy and leaves ovate.Rhamnus staddo A. Rich. JM 1428Shrub or tree to 7 m; branches spine tipped; leaves lanceolate to ovate-oblong, base attenuate; forest; common.Scutia myrtina (Burm. f.) Kurz JM 1477Spiny shrub or tree to 5 m, sometimes to 10 m; prickles recurved; grassland; common.Ziziphus mucronata Willd. JM 1353Spiny tree or shrub to 10 m; branch lets zig-zag, brown or dark brown; bushland and riparian thicket; occasional.193 VitaceaeCayratia gracilis (Guill. & Perr.) Suesseng. DO 510Climber with tendrils; leaves pedately 5-foliolate; wet forest; uncommon.Cissus oliveri (Engl.) Gilg. JM 1861Perennial climber; stem quadrangular with corky wings when old; leaves long-acuminate; upland forest; occasional.Cissus rotundifolia (Forssk.) Vahl DO 536Shrub; climber with tendrils; stem 4-5 angled; leaves fleshy, folded, margin toothed; bushland; occasional.Cyphostemma bambuseti (Gilg. & Brandt) Wild & Drum. JM 1959Climber with 3-5 foliolate leaves, minutely glandular; forest edge; occasional.Cyphostemma cychopetalum (Fresen.) Wild (C. nieriensis) JM 1513Climber with tendrils; leaves 5-foliolate; forest; common.Cyphostemma serpens (A. Rich.) Decne (C. orondo) JM 1451Climber; tap root tuberous; with or without tendrils; leaflets 3-7 densely pubescent below; bushland; occasionalRhoicissus tridentata (L. f.) Wild & Drum. JM 1479Small tendrillate shrub or climber; leaflets dentate; Combretum woodland; occasional.194 RutaceaeCalodendrum capense (L. f.) Thunb. JM 1836Deciduous tree to 17 m; bark grey; leaves opposite, simple, with a row of translucent glands near the margin; riverine; common.Clausena anisata (Willd.) Benth. JM 1818Unarmed shrub or tree 2-3 m, occasionally to 10m; leaves strongly aromatic; forest edges; common.Teclea nobilis Del. JM 1480Forest tree; leaves dark green 3, 2 or 1-foliolate; petiole grooved; ellucid glands present; orest; common.Tecla simplicifolia (Engl.) Verdorn SRShrub or forest tree; leaves unifoliolate, trifoliolate on young plants; forest edges; common.Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. JM 1933Scrambling prickly shrub; leaves 3-foliolate; leaflets gland dotted, sessile; forest; occasional.Vepris eugeniifolia (Engl.) Verdorn DO SRShrub; leaves unifoliolate; leaflets drooping blade with raised gland dots beneath; dry bushland; occasional.Vepris glomerata (F. Hoffm.) Engl. var. glabra Kokwaro DO 491Small tree to 3 m or more; leaves trifoliolate; petiole slightly winged; flowers scented; bushland; occasional.Zanthoxylum (Fagara) chalybeum (Engl.) Kokwaro var. chalybeum DO SRTree to 13 m; stem armed with large woody spines; leaflets punctate; bushed grassland; occasional.Zanthoxylum (Fagara) usambarense (Engl.) Kokwaro JM 1931Tree to 17 m; prickles straight or up-curved; leaflets with main nerves impressed above; forest edges; common.195/A BalanitaceaeBalanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del. DO 458Tree, 5-7 m, sometimes to 12 m; twigs thorny; branch lets green; dry bushland; occasional.196 BurseraceaeCommiphora africana (A. Rich.) Engl. JM SRShrub or small tree to 10m; bark peels in papery scrolls; leaves trifoliolate; bushland; occasional.Commiphora habessinica (Berg) Engl. ssp habessinica (C. madagascariensis) DO 592Small tree to 7 m; branches grey, spiny; bark peels in papery strips; rocky outcrops; occasional.Commiphora myrrha (Nees) Engl. (C. coriacea)Tree; branch lets thick, spinose, grey; leaves 1- or 3-foliolate, leathery; stony soil; occasional.Commiphora samharensis Scheinf. ssp terebinthina (Vollesen) Gillett DO 485Small spiny tree, 6 m; trunk yellow; leaves trifoliolate; bushed grassland; occasional.Commiphora schimperi (Berg) Engl. JM SRTree to 5 m; bark peeling to green and pale grey; leaves trifoliolate; dry grassland.197 MeliaceaeEkebergia capensis Sparrm. JM 1957Forest tree to 27 m; leaves compound, grouped near the ends of branch lets; forest; occasional.Trichilia emetica Vahl (T. roka) DO 468Tree 5-13 m, occasionally to 30m; bark smooth; young parts yellow, pubescent; riparian; occasional.Turraea mombassana C.D.C. JM 1355Much branched shrub to 3 m; flowers white; bushland; common.198 SapindaceaeAllophylus rubifolius (A. Rich.) Engl. JM 1636Shrub; leaves 3-foliolate; lateral leaflets subsessile, margins serrate; bushland; occasional.Dodonaea angustifolia L. f. (D. viscosa) JM 1562Shrub or tree, 2-4 m, occasionally to 8m; branchlets red-brown, angular; flowers yellowgreen to creamy white; bushland; common.Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. JM 1566Tree to 27 m; leaves crowded at the ends of twigs; base unequal; rocky slopes; occasional.202 MelianthaceaeBersama abyssinica Fres. TOSmall straggling tree to 7 m; leaves alternate, imparipinnate, to 60 cm long; forest edges; occasional.205 AnacardiaceaeLannea edulis (Sond.) Engl. JM 1977Low shrub; leaves 5-7-foliolate; flowers yellow; wooded grassland; occasional.Lannea schimperi (A. Rich.) Engl. JM 1876Tree, 5-12 m, rarely to 17 m; slash bright crimson; leaflets 5-9, subsessile; wet grassland; occasional.Ozoroa (Heeria) insignis Del. ssp reticulata (Bak. f.) A. & A. Fernandes JM 1908Small tree; slash pale crimson; leaves simple, midrib and laterals prominent beneath; grassland; occasional.Pistacia aethiopica Kokwaro JM 1476Tree to 17 m or more; twigs and leaves turpentine scented; leaves compound; leaf rachis winged; riparian; occasional.Rhus longipes Engl. JM 1762Tree to 7 m; leaves trifoliolate; leaflets sessile, glabrous, margin entire; edge of Ngelesha forest; common.Rhus natalensis Krauss JM 1351Bush or small tree to 7 m; branchlets grey brown; leaves pale green, trifoliolate, bushed grassland; common.Rhus vulgaris Meikle JM 1437Bush or small tree to 7 m; leaves trifoliate, softly tomentose beneath; bushland; common.Schinus molle L. (Cultivated) JM 2017Tree; leaves compound; leaflets linear-lanceolate, flowers white; forest edge; occasional.212 AraliaceaeCussonia hoistii Engl. var. hoistii JM 1495Tree to 7 m with pawpaw-like habit; leaves compound, digitate; leaflets 5; highland forest, rocky slopes; common.213 UmbelliferaeCentella asiatica (L.) Urb. JM 1791Creeping herb; leaves reniform or suborbicular, cordate, crenate; grassland or lawns; occasional.Diplolophium africanum Turcz. JM 1940Perennial 1 m; leaf segments capillary; wooded grassland; occasional.Ferula communis L. JM 1427Herb, 1.5 m; leaves large and finely divided at base; flower umbels yellow; woodland; common.Heteromorpha trifoliata (Wendl.) Eckl. & Zeyh. JM 1490Shrub to 7 m; leaves variable, simple, trilobed, trifoliate or pinnate; flowers yellow-green; forest edge; common.Oenanthe palustris (Chiov.) Norman M 2038Herb; leaves compound; petiole clasping stem; flowers green/white; swamps; common.Steganotaenia araliacea Rochst. JM 1556Tree 3-5 m, sometimes to 8m; leaves pinnate, crowded near the ends of branches; petiole sheathing at base; wet grassland; occasional.Torilis arvensis (Huds.) Link JM 1699Annual; leaves lanceolate-linear, toothed; forest paths; occasional.221 EbenaceaeDiospyros abyssinica (Hiem) F. White DO 537Tree to 30 m; bark very dark; slash yellow; leaves lanceolate to oblong-ianceolate; midrib impressed above; flowers white; forest; common.Euclea divinorum Hiem TOSmall tree; leaves elliptic, coriaceous; flowers cream; rocky highlands; common.Euclea racemosa Murr. ssp schimperi (A.D.C.) F. White (=E. schimperi) JM 1372Similar to E. divinorum but twigs scaly and leaf lamina with reddish scales beneath, margin wavy; highland; common.222 SapotaceaeMimusops cf. bagshawei S. Moore DO SRTree to 43 m; bark dark brown; slash pale crimson-red; leaves oblong to obovate oblong, 7.5-17.5 cm long; forest; occasional.223 MyrsinaceaeMyrsine africana L. JM 1993Evergreen shrub; leaves small, glabrous, subsessile, serrulate, gland dotted; open land at high altitude; occasional.228 LoganiaceaeStrychnos henningsii Gilg. JM 1486Tree to 10m, sometime shrubby; leaves glabrous, ovate, oblong or lanceolate to 5 cm long and 2.5 cm broad, 3-5 nerved; dry bushland; occasional.Strychnos mitis S. Moore JM 2053Small tree; slash very thin, orange-brown; leaves 3-nerved from base; riverine forest; common.229 OleaceaeChionanthus mildbraedii (Gilg. & Schell) Steam JM & TPY 2056Shrub or small tree to 18 m; bark smooth; slash yellow; leaves coriaceous, apex acute or acuminate; forest; occasional.Jasminum floribundum Fresen. JM 1361Shrub, climbing or suberect; leaves 5-foliolate; bushland; common.Jasminum fluminense Vell. JM 1683Shrub, climber; leaves 3-foliolate; riverine forest; occasional.Olea europaea L. ssp africana (Mill.) P.G. Green JM 1359Tree 7-10 m, sometimes to 27 m; leaves opposite, linear-lanceolate to elliptic-lanceolate; flowers small, white; woodland; very common.Schrebera alata (Hochst.) Welw. JM 1489Tree to 30 m; leaves imparipinnate; petiole narrowly winged at base; bushland; common.230 ApocynaceaeAcokanthera schimperi (A.D.C.) Benth. JM 1377Tree or shrub; leaves coriaceous, shiny, opposite, elliptic or broadly elliptic; dry bushland; common.Carissa edulis (Forssk.) Vahl JM 1366Scrambling shrub to 3 m; much branched; spines simple or bifurcate; flowers white inside, red outside; bushland; very common.Rauvolfia caffra Sond. JM 1865Tree to 27 m; leaves in whorls of 3 or 4, to 30 cm; flowers white; wet forest; occasional.Saba comorensis (DC.) Pichon (Landolphia comorensis) DO 517Liana on forest trees; leaves opposite, tinged pink when young; flowers white with long corolla tube, scented; forest; uncommon.231 AsclepiadaceaeCeropegia ballyana Bullock JM 1628Succulent climber; flowers greenish to yellow with maroon spots; bushland; occasional.Ceropegia powysii FieldReported fom near the bottom of the Mukutan Gorge (Newton, 1990)Cynanchum gerrardii (Harvey) Liede (C. tetrapterum) TOClimbing leafless shrub; stems fleshy; petals reflexed; Acacia bushland; occasional.Echidnopsis sharpei White & Sloane DO SRSucculent with knob-like projections; flowers maroon; bushed grassland; occasional.Ectadiopsis oblongifolia (Meisn.) Schltr. JM 1880Erect loose shrub; leaves oblong-elliptic; flowers pale yellow; wooded grassland; common.Gomphocarpus fruticosus (L.) Ait. f. JM 1515Shrub; leaves acicular to linear oblong; flowers white and maroon; watercourses; common.Gomphocarpus physocarpus E. Mey. JM 2210Shrub; leaves lanceolate; flowers green and white; grassland; occasional.Gomphocarpus stenophyllus Oliv. TPY 2178Perennial; young parts white woolly hairy; leaves very narrow; flowers yellow or reddish; rocky bushed grassland; occasional.Huernia keniensis R.E. Fries DO 663Fleshy herb with 4-6 rows of conical projections; rocky ground; occasional.Kanahia laniflora (Forssk.) R. Br. DO 577Shrub, leaves linear; flowers large, pure white; water courses; occasional.Pachycybium (Caralluma) dummeri (N.E. Br.) M. Gilbert JM 1720Fleshy perennial; stems variagated; Combretum woodland; occasional.Sarcostemma andongense Hiem DO 625Much branched bush; latex-producing; flowers pale green, short penduncled; rocky grassland thicket; common.Sarcostemma viminale (L.) R. Br. JM 1481Shrub; trailing, twining or climbing; stems green; flowers white; rocky ground; common.Secamone punctulata Decne DO 620Woody climber; leaves narrowly elliptic to linear; woodland; occasional.Stathmostelma rhacodes K. Schum.Herb; leaves linear; umbel single, terminal; flowers red and orange; seasonally waterlogged grassland; occasional.232 RubiaceaeCanthium lactescens Hiern JM 1365Tree or shrub to 5 m; leaves drying dark brown or black; flowers white-green; rocky slopes; common.Canthium pseudosetiflorum Bridson ssp. pseudosetiflorum DO 493Shrub, 1-3 m; young branches covered with dark grey bark, lenticellate; leaf blades paired; mixed scrub; occasional.Galium aparine aucu. afr. non L. (G. spurium L. ssp africanum) JM 1503"Sticky" climber or scrambler; leaves narrowly oblanceolate, acute; flowers on long pedicels; weed of cultivation.Gardenia ternifolia (Schumach. & Thonn.) (G.jovis-tonantis) JM & TY 2054Shrub or small tree 1-6 m; often stunted in appearance; leaves arranged in threes on short ternate shoots; rocky grassland; common.Kohautia coccinea Royle TPY 2267Herb, unbranched or sparsely branched, 30 cm; leaves linear; wooded grassland; occasional.Meyna tetraphylla (Hiern) Robyns ssp comerensis (Robyns) Verdc. DO 578Shrub or small tree, armed with opposite straight prickles; flowers white; river-beds; occasional.Oldenlandia corymbosa L. JM 2131Prostrate spreading much branched herb; leaves linear-lanceolate; corolla pale blue; open ground; occasional.Oldenlandia herbacea (L.) Roxb. DO 649Herb to 60 cm; stems 4-ribbed; leaves linear; wooded grassland; occasional.Oldenlandia scopulorum Bullock JM 1861Herb to 25 cm, much branched; leaves linear; grassland; occasional.Pavetta subcana Hiern ssp. longiflora (Vatke) Bridson DO 465Shrub, 1-3.5 m; bacterial nodules dot-shaped on lateral nerves; corolla tube glabrous outside; young branches glabrous; leaves glabrous; bushland; occasional.Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore JM 1406Herb, 10 cm; flowers bright blue; grassland; occasional.Pentas lanceolata (Forssk.) Deflers TPY 2331Herb or subshrub to 103m; leaves lanceolate; bushland; occasional.Pentas parvifolia Hiern JM 1844Subshrub to 2.5 m; flowers scarlet, crowded; grassland; occasional.Pentas pubiflora S. Moore TPY 2332Herb or subshrub 1.5 m; flowers white, rarely tinged pale blue or pinkish; forest edges; occasional.Pentas zanzibarica ((Klotzsch) Vatke TPY 2333Herb or shrubby herb to 2.5 m; flowers pink or lilac, bluish mauve or bright crimson red; grassland; occasional.Psychotria kirkii Hiern M 1766Shrub, 1.5 m; leaves crowded at the end of branches; fruits bright orange when ripe; forest dges; common.Psydrax schimperiana (A. Rich.) Bridson ssp. schimperiana JM 2371Tree, 5 m; leaves leathery, shiny; wooded grassland; common.Pyrostria (Canthium) phy/lanthoidea Baill. JM 1868Much branched shrub; branches decussate; flowers greenish; fruits two celled; bushland; common.Rubia cordifolia L. JM 1478Scrambling or climbing herb, 5 m; stems and leaves brittle; forest edges; common.Spermacoce sphaerostigma (A. Rich.) VatkeAnnual herb to 90 cm; leaves lanceolate; grassland; occasional.Spermacoce sp. TPY 2207Herb 70 cm high; much branched; grassland; occasional.Tarrenna graveolens (S. Moore) Brem. AR 4106Shrub or small tree, 1.8-7 m; young branches covered with grey to reddish bark, sometimes flaking when older; bushland; occasional.Vangueria apiculata K. Schum.Tree or shrub; leaves apiculate; fruits green, coarsely lobed; forest edge; common.Vangueria sp. nr. madagascariensis Gmel. (V, acutiloba) JM SR Shrub or small tree; leaves broadly elliptic to oblong-elliptic; riparian; uncommon.Vangueria madagascariensis Gmel. (V, acutiloba) JM 1349Shrub or small tree; leaves broadly elliptic to oblong-elliptic; fruits globose, green (unripe), brown when ripe; bushland; common.Vangueria volkensii K. Schum. var. volkensii (V, linerarisepala) TOShrub or small tree; young parts golden velvety hairy; leaf nerves prominent below; forest edges; occasional.238 CompositaeAcanthospermum hispidum DC. JM 1452Herb; flower heads small, yellow; fruits spiny, weed of cultivation.Acmella calirhiza Del. (Spilanthes mauritiana) JM 2139Trailing herb; leaves ovate, dentate; flower heads orange-yellow; riverine; common.Ageratum conyzoides L. JM 2154Erect weak annual; leaves ovate, serrate; flower heads terminal, corymbose, blue-purple; common weed of disturbed ground.Anisopappus holstii (O. Hoffin.) Wild DO 641Herb, annual, glandular; leaves ovate, dentate; rocky grassland; common.Aspilia kotschyi (Sch. Bip.) Olivo DO 508Herb, annual or weak perennial, scabrid tomentose; flower heads deep black purple or maroon; grassland; occasional.Aspilia mossambicensis (Oliv.) Wild JM 1410Herb or shrub; leaves scabrid; flower heads yellow; grassland; common.Aspilia pleuriseta Schweinf. CL 12Similar to A. mossambicensis except flowers and leaves smaller in size, whole plant smaller in size as compared to the latter.Athroisma gracile (Olive.) Mattf. JM 2178Herb; leaves thread-like; flower heads corymbose; rocky grassland; occasional.Berkeya spekeana Olivo JM 1559Herb; leaves pinnatifid, spiny, white woolly below; wooded grassland; common.Bidens biternata (Lour.) Merr.Annual herb, erect; leaves hairy, pinnate, trifoliolate mostly; common weed, disturbed ground.Bidens pilosa L. JM 1411Similar to B. biternata but glabrous; common weed, disturbed ground.Blumea brevipes Olivo & Hiern JM 1752Herb, 1m; stem winged; leaves sessile, yellow green; wooded grassland; occasional.Bothriocline fusca S. Moore JM 1693Shrub; leaves lanceolate-elliptic, serrate, white hairy below; flower heads purple to violet; disturbed ground; common.Cineraria deltoides Sond. (=C. grandiflora) JM 1709Herb; leaves auriculate; flower heads corymbose, yellow; forest edges; occasional. Conyza aegyptiaca (L.) Ait.Herb; leaves pinnatifid; flower heads large, terminal; disturbed grassland; common.Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronq. JM 1746Herb; basal leaves a rosette, stem leaves distantly serrate; disturbed grassland; uncommon.Conyza schimperi Sch. Sip. JM 1446Shrub or herb; leaves pinnatifid; flower heads small, pale; grassland; common.Conyza sumatrensis (Retz.) E.H. Walker TPY 2184Herb; leaves linear-lanceolate, lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate; flower heads numerous, white-cream; common weed.Cotula abyssinica A. Rich. JM 2206Perennial herb; leaves alternate; flower heads long pendunc1ed, terminal green; high altitude grassland; common.Solanecio (Crassocephalum) mannii (Hook. f.) C. Jeffrey JM 2157Semi-succulent tree; leaves elliptic, crowded at the ends of branches; bushland; good living fence.Crassocephalum picridifolium (D.C.) S. Moore JM 2127Trailing perennial herb; leaves petiolate, ovate, often auriculate; cleared grassland; occasional.Dichrocephala integrifolia O. Kuntze JM 2141Herb; leaves rhomboid ovate, petiolate; flower heads terminal, reddish; montane forest; occasional.Echinops amplexicaulis Olivo JM 1911Erect robust herb; leaves sessile, shallowly lobed, ovate-elliptic; wooded grassland; occasional.Emilia (Senecio) discifolia (Oliv.) C. Jeffrey JM 1432Herb, annual or weak perennial; leaves spathulate; flower heads orange; disturbed ground; common weed.Emilia integrifolia Bak. TPY 2281Herb; leaves linear; flower heads terminal, cream to white; high altitude grassland; common.Felicia abyssinica A. Rich. JM 1586Herb 20 cm tall; leaves linear; flower heads solitary with spreading blue to mauve rays and a yellow centre; dry grassland; common.Galinsoga parviflora Cav. TPY 2147Annual herb, erect; flower heads minute, terminal, cream; disturbed ground; common weed.Gerbera viridifolia (DC.) Sch. Sip. ssp viridifolia CL 1AHerb; leaves a rosette, petiolate, oblong elliptic; flower heads solitary, pinkish; wooded grassland; occasional.Gnaphalium rubrifolium Hilliard (G. declinatum) JM 1694Trailing annual or perennial herb; leaves oblong, spathulate or linear, white woolly; flowers white; bushed grassland; common.Guizotia scabra (Vis.) Chiov. JM 1650Scabrid herb; leaves oblong, dentate or entire; flower heads yellow; bushed grassland; occasional.Gutenbergia (Erlangea) boranensis S. Moore TOPerennial herb or weak shrub; lower leaves petiolate, lanceolate, white below; sandy disturbed grassland; common.Gutenbergia (Erlangea) cordifolia Olivo JM 1364Annual herb; leaves subsessile, opposite to alternate, white woolly below; disturbed grassland; common weed.Gynura scandens O. Hoffm. JM 1511Succulent herb, scrambler; leaves auriculate, serrate; wet bushed grassland; occasional.Helichrysum gerberifolium Sch. Bip. JM 2227Erect herb; leaves a rosette, narrowly elliptic; flower heads brownish; bushed grassland; occasional.Helichrysum globosum Sch. Bip. JM 1475Perennial herb; basal leaves a rosette, long petioled, 3-nerved; upland bushed grassland; occasional.Helichrysum glumaceum DC. JM 1444Weak shrub, grey hairy; leaves linear, acute; rocky grassland; common.Helichrysum odoratissimum (L.) Less. JM 1955Straggling shrub; silvery hairy; leaves linear-lanceolate; grassland; common.Helichrysum schimperi (Sch. Bip.) Moeser JM 1461Trailing soft shrub, white hairy; leaves broad elliptic; inflorescence yellow or whitish; forest edges; common.Hirpicium diffusum (O. Hoffm.) Roess. JM 1464Herb; leaves oblong to linear, entire to pinnatilobed; flowers yellow; disturbed grassland; common.Inula decipiens E.A. Bruce JM 1943Woody herb; leaves large, velvet pubescent below; flower heads in terminal corymbs, yellow; forest edges; occasional.Kleinia squarrosa Cuf. (=K. kleinoides) DO 512Loose shrub or climber; stems fleshy; leaves obovate or oblong; flower heads pink or mauve; bushland; common.Notonia petraea R.E. Fries JM 1578Trailing glabrous succulent herb; leaves obovate to suborbicular; flower heads orange; bushed grassland; occasional.Osteospermum vaillantii (Decne) Nord. JM 1458Erect glandular pubescent annual; leaves dentate or pinnately lobed, elliptic-lanceolate; florets yellow; disturbed ground; common weed.Piloselloides hirsuta (Forssk.) C. Jeffr. (Gerbera piloselloides) JM 1600Herb; basal leaves in a rosette, oblong-elliptic, narrowing gradually at base; highland bushed grassland; common.Pseudognaphalium (Gnaphalium) luteo-album (L.) Hilliard & Burtt JM 2148Erect white woolly annual herb; leaves spathulate, oblong; flower heads yellow; disturbed grassland; common.Psiadia punctulata DC. Vatke (P. arabica) JM 1367Glabrous shrub; flower heads yellow, terminal; bushland and forest edges; common.Reichardia tingitana (L.) Roth JM 2216Glabrous annual herb, 20 cm; leaves oblanceolate, dentate; heads solitary; disturbed ground; uncommon.Schkuhria pinnata (Lam.) O. Kuntze JM 1382Erect annual; leaves capillary; flower heads small, yellow; roadside and cultivation; common.Senecio hadiensis Forsk. (S. petitianus) JM 2225Semi-succulent robust trailing climber; leaves minutely toothed; forest edges; common.Sonchus schweinfurthii Olivo & Hiem JM 2128Robust erect or trailing herb; leaves pinnately divided; heads tight terminal clusters; bushed grassland; occasional.Sphaeranthus gomphrenoides O. Hoffm. JM 1350Weak herb; leaves lanceolate; stem wings interrupted; water courses; common.Sphaeranthus suaveolens (Forssk.) DC. JM 2213Trailing herb; leaves ovate, dentate; flower heads orange-yellow; riverine; common.Sphaeranthus sp. nr ukambensis Vatke & O. Hoffm. JM 1906Herb; leaves lanceolate; occasionally waterlogged ground; uncommon.Tagetes minuta L. JM 1463Strong smelling annual; leaves pinnate; heads creamy yellow, terminal; disturbed ground; common weed.Tarchonanthus camphoratus L. JM 1418Shrub to 7 m; leaves smell of camphor when crushed, densely white tomentose beneath, green above; level ground; dominant plant over much of ranch.Vernonia brachycalyxO. Hoffm. JM 1424Trailing scrambler; corymbs terminal; flower heads purple; forest edges; common.Vernonia lasiopus O. Hoffm. JM 2007Weak shrub; leaves ovate, coarsely serrate, pale tomentose below; disturbed ground; common.Vernonia popeana C. Jeffrey (V. sp. C of Agnew ed. 1) TOPerennial shrub; flower heads terminal, purple; median leaves clasping the stem; bushed grassland; occasional.Volutaria lippii (L.) Maire JM 2133Annual or weak perennial; leaves oblong, pinnatifid; flower heads purple; bushed grassland; occasional.239 GentianaceaeSebaea brachyphylla Griseb. TPY 2354Branched annual; leaves sessile, orbicular; flowers terminal, corymbose, crowded, yellow; forest edge; occasional.240 PrimulaceaeAnagallis arvensis L. JM 1652Much branched annual herb; leaves ovate to lanceolate; flowers blue or reddish pink on long pedicels; shallow soils and disturbed places; common.243 CampanulaceaeCanarina abysinnica Engl. JM 1995Glaucous climber; leaves triangular-ovate; flowers pendulous, orange; forest and forest edges; uncommon.244 LobeliaceaeLobelia sp. TPY 2353Prostrate herb; mesic sites.249 BoraginaceaeCordia monoica Roxb. (C. ovalis) JM 1575Shrub or tree to 7 m; bark scaling in strips; leaves sand-papery, sub-opposite; dry bushland; common.Echiochilon lithospermoides (S. Moore) Johnston JM 2129Woody herb; leaves small, sessile, ovate; flowers pink, mauve; bushland; occasional.Heliotropium longiflorum (A. DC.) Jaub. & Spach. ssp undulatifolium TPY 2189Perennial herb; leaves linear, undulate; flowers white to cream; bushed grassland; occasional.Heliotropium strigosum L. JM 1640Stiffy-hairy annual herb; leaves elliptic to linear; flowers white; disturbed stony grassland; occasional.Heliotropium zeylanicum (Burm. f.) Lam. (H subulatum) JM 2175Perennial herb; leaves elliptic to linear; flowers yellow; bushland; occasional.Lithospermum afromontanum Weim. JM 2232Trailing silky hairy shrub; leaves sessile, ovate to lanceolate; flowers white; forest clearing; common.250 SolanaceaeDatura stramonium L. JM 1397Annual herb; leaves ovate, dentate; fruits armed with stout prickles; disturbed ground; common.Lycium europaeum L. JM 1525Much branched armed woody shrub; leaves narrow, spathulate-obovate or oblong; ripe berries orange or red; dry bushland; uncommon.Physalis peruviana L. JM 1916Trailing herb; flowers yellow with brown centres; fruits orange; disturbed ground; common.Solanum sp. A of Agnew JM 1471Herb; leaves linear-oblong; bushed grassland; uncommon.Solanum aculeastrum Dunal JM 1913Shrub or small tree; stems and underside of leaves prickly; forest clearings; common.Solanum incanum L. JM 1348Felty pubescent woody herb or shrub; prickles present or absent; waste ground; common.Solanum indicum L. JM 1912Woody herb or shrub; leaves ovate, sinuate to pinnately lobed; prickles usually on stems and leaves; flowers pale mauve; montane forest clearing; occasional.Solanum mauense Bitter JM 1917Similar to S. indicum except leaves entire; montane forest clearings; occasional.Solanum nigrum L. JM 1591Pubescent or glabrous unarmed annual herb; flowers white; disturbed ground; common weed.Solanum terminale Forssk. (S. nakurense)Unarmed herb or shrub; leaves broadly elliptic; flowers white to pale blue; bushland; common.Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal JM 1705Woody herb or soft shrub; leaves ovate; flowers green; disturbed ground; common.251 ConvolvulaceaeAstripomoea malvacea (Klotzsch) Meeuse JMSRPerennial; leaves elliptic to broadly ovate; flowers white; bushed grassland; common.Convolvulus sagittatus Thunb. AR 4102Herb; stems twining or prostrate; leaves linear to oblong, sagittate; bushland; uncommon.Convolvulus siculus L. TPY 2226Annual herb; leaves oblong lanceolate; corolla white; disturbed grassland; occasional.Cuscuta kilimanjari Olivo TPY 2139Leafless parasite; flowers cream; pedicels shorter than flowers; forest edge; occasional.Evolvulus alsinoides L. JM 1380Annual or perennial herb covered with silky hairs; leaves elliptic to linear oblong; grassland; common.Falkia canescens C.H. Wright JM 1668Prostrate herb rooting at nodes; leaves squarish-reniform, petiolate cordate, glabrous above; flowers white, solitary; fruit white tomentose 4-lobed; grassland; occasional.Ipomoea arachnosperma Welw. DO 609Annual prostrate or twining herb; leaves 3-lobed, cottony hairy beneath; bushland; uncommon.Ipomoea cairica (L.) SweetPerennial twining herb; leaves palmately divided; forest clearing; common.Ipomoea hildebrandtii Vatke TPY 2179Shrublet, 4m; leaves round to elliptic-oblong, large fmely pubescent beneath; grassland; occasional.Ipomoea kituensis Vatke JM 1597Shrub, partly twining or scrambling; leaves round, very obtuse at apex, large; flowers white cream or yellow; bushland; common.Ipomoea longituba Han. f. JM 1592Perennial shrub; leaves ovate, cuneate or truncate at base, entire or lobed; bushed grassland; uncommon.Ipomoea marmorata Brit. & Rendle DO 609Erect subwoody shrub to 0.6 m flowering when leafless; leaves orbicular or reniform; bushland; occasional.Ipomoea mombassana Vatke JM 2165Annual or perennial twiner; leaves cordate, sagittate; bushland; common.Ipomoea obscura (L.) Ker. Gawl.Perennial herb, prostrate or twining; flowers bright yellow, orange, cream or white; bushland; common.Ipomoea polymorpha Roem. & Schultes JM 1875Annual or biennial erect or prostrate herb to 0.6 m; hairy leaves shallowly to deeply lobed; flowers axillary, white or pink; wet grassland; occasional.Ipomoea sinensis (Desr.) Choisy ssp blepharosepala (A. Rich.) Meeuse JM 2047Annual twiner; leaves ovate-oblong, cordate or subhastrate; bushland; occasional. Ipomoea wightii (Wall.) Choisy TPY SRPerennial prostrate or twinging hairy herb; leaves 3-1obed or entire, cottony hairy below; grassland; common.Ipomoea sp. JM 2034Prostrate herb; leaves cordate, hairy; seasonally waterlogged soil; rare.Stictocardia beraviensis (Vatke) Hall. f. DO 451Climber; flowers deep red; leaves alternate and simple; bushland; occasional.252 ScrophulariaceaeAlectra sp. nr kirkii Hemsel DO 656Parasitic herb; flowers yellow; shady forest; uncommon.Alectra parasitica A. Rich. TPY 2249Parasitic herb; leaves scale-like, yellowish; flowers yellow; dry bushland; uncommon.Craterostigma plantagineum Hochst. JM 1976Herb; leaves a rosette, serrate; flowers blue; grassland; occasional.Craterostigma ?pumilum Hochst. JM 1786Herb; leaves in a rosette; occasionally waterlogged grassland; uncommon.Cycnium tubulosum (L. f.) Engl. ssp montanum (N.E. Br.) O.J. Hansen JM 2005Herb; leaves linear-lanceolate; flowers white tinted purple or pink; bushland; common.Hebenstretia angolensis Rolfe (H. dentata) TPY SRShrub; leaves linear, toothed or entire; flowers white or orange; rocky bushed grassland; occasional.Lindernia philcoxii Fischer (Ilysanthes pusilla) TPY 2351Perennial herb; leaves elliptic; flowers pink; grassland shallow soils; occasional.Misopates orontium (L.) Raf. DO 644Annual; leaves linear; flowers subsessile, purple or pink or cream; shallow soils; uncommon.Pseudosopubia hildebrandtii (Vatke) Engl. DO 484Woody herb; leaves linear, acute or obtuse; flowers purple-pink; bushland; uncommon.Striga asiatica (L.) Ktze. DO 619Annual parasite; leaves linear to filamentous; flowers bright crimson; grassland; occasional.259 AcanthaceaeAsystasia mysorensis (Roth) T. Anders. (A. schimperi) JM 1454Annual herb; leaves obovate to elliptic; flowers white; pathsides; common.Barleria argentea Rolf. f. (B. diffusa)Woody herb; leaves subsessile; flowers pinkish mauve; grassland; occasional.Barleria micrantha C.B. Cl. TOHerb; leaves shortly petiolate; flowers pale blue; woodland; occasional.Barleria spinisepala E.A. Bruce JM 1462Woody herb; leaves subsessile, elliptic, mucronate; calyx spine-margined; flowers blue; grassland; occasional.Barleria submollis Lindau DO 489Herb; leaves rounded at base; flowers blue; bushland; occasional.Barleria ventricosa Nees JM 1403Herb; leaves subsessile, attenuate below; flowers blue; forest; occasional.Barleria volkensii Lindau TOHerb; leaves ovate-elliptic, petiolate; flowers blue; forest edges; occasional.Blepharis ciliaris (L.) B.L. Burtt (B. linariifolia) DO 488Annual herb; leaves sessile, unequal, spine toothed; flowers bright blue; open grassland.Blepharis maderaspatensis (L.) Roth. var. rubiifolia (Schum.) Napper JM 1429Trailing herb; leaves entire or rarely toothed, scabrid, verticillate at nodes; flowers white; rocky slopes and forest edges; uncommon.Crabbea velutina S. Moore JM 1354Herb; leaves shortly petiolate, oblong-elliptic; flowers white; grassland; common.Crossandra massaica Mildbr. (C. nilotica) DO 545Herb; leaves petiolate, elliptic-Ianceolate; flowers red; wooded grassland; occasional.Crossandra mucronata Lindau JM 1374Herb; leaves subsessile, ovate-elliptic; flowers pale orange to red; dry thicket; common.Dyschoriste clinopodioides Mildbr. (D. radicans) JM 2179Trailing herb; leaves elliptic to obovate; flowers pale purple; disturbed grassland; occasional.Dyschoriste thunbergiflora (S. Moore) Lindau DO 555Herb or subshrub; flowers purple mauve or blue; forest margin; common.Hygrophila auriculata (Schumach.) Heine JM 1794Herb; stems square; flowers axillary each with stout spines; bushland; occasional.Hypoestes forskahlii (Vahl) R. Br. (H. verticillaris) JM 1402Herb; leaves elliptic, petiolate; flowers axillary, white streaked with pink or purple; bushland; common.Isoglossa laxa Olivo JM 1389Herb; leaves ovate, subsessile below the inflorescence which is glandular hairy; woodland; occasional.Justicia anselliana (Nees) T. Anders (J. leikipiensis) JM 1440Herb; leaves linear to narrowly elliptic; marshy grassland; common.Justicia cordata (Nees) T. Anders TOShrub; leaves subsessile, oblong, bases shortly clasping stem or cordate; bushland; occasional.Justicia diclipteroides Lindau DO 584Trailing herb rooting at nodes; flowers purple to pink; forest edges; common.Justicia calyculata (Deflers) T. Anders. (J. exigua) TPY 2272Creeping annual or perennial herb with spreading hairy stems; grassland; common.Justicia sp. nr. calyculata (Deflers) T. Anders. DO 575Creeping or erect herb rooting at nodes; flowers white; forest floor; uncommon.Justicia heterocarpa T. Anders DO 570Annual herb; leaves ovate to elliptic; flowers pale purple; grassland; common.Justicia regis Hedron (J. sp. D of Agnew ed. 1) JM 1502Shrub, white hairy on stems; leaves ovate to oblong, rounded; rocky bushed grassland; occasional.Megalochlamys (Ecbolium) revolutum (Lindau) Vollesen TPY SRSemi-woody shrub to 2 m; dry rocky slopes; occasionalMonechma debile (Forssk.) Nees JM 1456Woody annual herb; flowers terminal and axillary purplish, subtended by broad oblong-elliptic bracts; disturbed ground; common.Monothecium glandulosum Hochst. TPY 2315Trailing herb rooting at nodes; flowers pale purple to mauve; woodland; occasional.Ruellia patula Jacq. JM 1576Herb; leaves petiolate, ovate-spathulate, obtuse or acute; flowers pinkish lilac; bushland, grassland; common.Ruttya fruticosa Lindau JM 1533Shrub; leaves ovate to obovate-elliptic; flowers black and red; bushland; common.Thunbergia alata Sims TPY 2328Twining perennial herb; leaves triangular to lanceolate or ovate; flowers orange; bushland; common.Thunbergia ?fischeri Engl. JM 1973Densely hairy perennial from a woody rootstock; grassland; uncommon.Whitfieldia elongata (Beauv.) C.B. CI. JM 2051Erect or climbing shrub; leaves large, glabrous, elliptic, gradually narrowed at both ends; flowers yellowish white, glandular; corolla tube white; wet forest; rare.263 VerbenaceaeClerodendrum glabrum E.Mey. TOEvergreen shrub to 5 m; leaves opposite or ternate, underside densely glandular; flower white; bushland; common.Clerodendrum myricoides (Hochst.) Vatke JM 1346Shrub to 3 m; leaves subsessile, verticillate, margin deeply toothed, blade glandular punctate below; flowers blue; grassland; common.Lantana camara L. TOShrub; stems armed with short hooked prickles; leaves scabrid, serrate; wasteland; disturbed ground; common.Lantana trifolia L. JM 1860Shrub; leaves usually ternate, scabrid; bushland; common.Lippia javanica (Burm. f.) Spreng JM 1356Shrub; leaves lanceolate to oblong with dense white pubescence below; flower spikes more than 4 at nodes; disturbed ground; common.Lippia kituiensis Vatke sensu Baker et al. (L. ukambensis) JM 1800Similar to L. javanica but leaves scabrid; disturbed ground; common.Priva curtisiae Kobuski M 1654Herb; leaves oblong to ovate; flowers pink, spicate; bushland; occasional.Verbena bonariensis L. (V. brasiliensis Vell.?) TPY 2129Robust annual; leaves sessile, oblong, serrate; flowers violet; common weed.264 LabiataeAjuga remota Benth. JM 2004Herb, 20 cm; leaves oblanceolate, coarsely toothed; flowers pale blue; disturbed areas; uncommon.Becium obovatum (E. Mey.) N.E. Br. JM 1378Herb or wiry shrub; leaves oblong, ovate or obovate, rounded at base or apex; flowers white or pale pink; bushed grassland; common.Becium sp. C of Agnew & Agnew TPY 2295Herb; leaves linear to oblanceolate, acute, stems purple; wooded grassland; common.Fuerstia africana T.C.E. Fr. JM 1357Shrub or herb; leaves ovate, serrate; flowers white; leaves stain the fingers red when crushed; grassland, undergrowth in wooded grassland; common.Leonotis nepetifolia R. Br. JM 1985Woody annual; leaves long petiolate, ovate; flowers orange; disturbed ground; common weed.Leonotis ocymifolia (N.L. Burm.) Iwarsson (L. mollissima) JM 1938Woody herb or shrub; leaves woolly, ovate, cordate; flowers orange, occasionally white; disturbed ground; occasional.Leucas argentea Guerke (L. sp. A of Agnew ed. 1) TPY 2338Erect silky-tomentose shrub; leaves orbicular to ovate elliptic; flowers globose clusters, white; disturbed bushland; uncommon.Leucas calostachys Oliv JM 1755Shrub; leaves elliptic to obovate, subsessile; flowers in terminal masses, spike-like, white; bushland; occasional.Leucas glabrata R. Br. DO 314Herb or weak shrub; leaves petiolate, elliptic to ovate; grassland; uncommon.Leucas martinicensis (Jacq.) R. Br. JM 1453Annual herb; leaves ovate to elliptic; flower tight balls, white; calyces spiny; disturbed soil; occasional.Ocimum gratissimum L. (O. suave) JM 1414Shrub; leaves long petiolate, ovate, serrate; flowers dirty white; forest edges; bushland; common.Ocimum kenyense Paton (O. sp. A of Agnew ed. 1) JM 2217Herb; leaves subsessile, ovate-elliptic; black cotton soil; occasional.Plectranthus assurgens (Bak.) J.K. Morton JM 2212Trailing shrub; leaves broad-ovate, almost suborbicular; shady montane forest; occasional.Plectranthus caninus Roth. JM 1729Low fleshy annual herb; leaves elliptic, cuneate; flowers bright blue, spicate; disturbed rocky ground; common.Plectranthus comosus Sims (P. barbatus) TPY 2274Shrub; leaves ovate or ovate-elliptic; flowers bright blue; bushland; occasional.Plectranthus sp. nr cylindraceus A. Rich. DO 562Scrambling fleshy shrub; leaves elliptic to obovate; bushland; uncommon.Plectranthus longipes Bak. TPY 2286Sub-succulent herb; leaves orbicular, crenate; flowers bright blue; disturbed woodland; occasional.Plectranthus pseudomarrubioides R.H. Willemse DO 530Trailing succulent herb; leaves ovate to orbicular; flowers lilac; rocky bushed grassland in rock crevices; occasional.Plectranthus hadiensis (Forsk.) Schweinf. (P. zatarhendi) TOTrailing herb; leaves long petiolate, coarsely serrate, orbicular; disturbed rocky ground; occasional.Plectranthus sp. JM 1810Perennial shrub; leaves opposite, fleshy; dry rocky slopes; uncommon.Plectranthus sp. JM 1979Perennial shrub, semi-succulent; leaves serrate; dry rocky slopes; uncommon.Pycnostachys deflexifolia Bak. JM 2229Erect glabrous annual or short-lived perennial herb; leaves lanceolate-elliptic; flowers terminal, usually solitary in long tapering spikes; disturbed ground; uncommon.Salvia leucantha Cav. JM 1682Straggling shrub; leaves lanceolate, finely serrated; flowers purple and white; disturbed ground; occasional.Tetradenia riparia (Hochst.) Codd. JM 1420Semi-succulent shrub; leaves opposite, fleshy, serrate, broadly elliptic to orbicular; rocky outcrops; common.Tinnea aethipica Kotschy & Peyr. ssp aethiopica JM 1393Shrub; leaves elliptic, coarsely toothed; flowers paired; calyx red; corolla black; forest edges; common.MONOCOTYLEDONS276 PotamogetonaceaePotamogeton thunbergii Cham. & Schlechtd. (P. richardil) TPY 2127Anchored trailing aquatic; leaves floating; spikes emergent; streams and dams; common.280 CommelinaceaeAneilema aequinoctiale (P. Beauv.) Kunth. TPY 2300Herb with trailing stems; hairs hooked; flowers yellow; forest; occasional.Aneilema recurvatum Faden (A. sp. C of Agnew ed. 1) TPY 2301Herb; upper petals narrower and more pointed; bushland; occasional.Aneilema petersii (Hassk.) C.B. CI. JM 1853Herb; flowers white to pale mauve; bushland; occasional.Commelina africana L. var. africana JM 1517Small herb; branches protrate; roots thickened, fibrous; grassland; common.Commelina africana L. var. glabriuscula (Norl.) Brenan DO 448Perennial semi-succulent, trailing or straggling or semi-erect herb; forest floor; occasional.Commelina albescens Hassk. DO 629Small herb; spathes strongly falcate, grassland/bushland; common.Commelina benghalensis L. DO 446Herb; leaves petiolate and oblique based; weed of cultivation and disturbed areas; common.Commelina erecta L. JM 1482Herb; stems erect; flowers with paired sepals fused; grassland/bushland; common.Commelina forskolii Vahl DO 596Trailing herb rooting at nodes; leaf margins undulate; grassland; common.Commelina latifolia A. Rich. TPY 2145Herb; flowers dark blue; forest edges; common.Commelina petersii Hassk. DO 541Herb; erect or scrambling; spathes large, acuminate; bushland; occasional.Commelina luggardii Bullock (C. purpurea)Tufted herb; internodes purple; shallow soils in rocky areas; common.Commelina subulata RothSmall herb; stems single or tufted, erect, 5-25 cm; grassland in vlei soils; occasional.Cyanotis sp. aff. foecunda Hassk. DO 532Herb with many noded flowering shoots; among rocks; uncommon.Murdamia simplex (Vahl) Brenan JM 2130Herb; flowers lavender to bluish mauve; swamps, grassland; occasional.293 LiliaceaeAlbuca sp. JM 1779Bulbous herb; leaves linear; rocky grassland; uncommon.Aloe lateritia Engl. var. graminicola (Reynolds) S. Carter JM 2231Medium sized aloe; leaves a rosette, sessile, white spotted and streaked; wooded grassland; occasional.Aloe nyeriensis ChristianShrub, thicket forming; leaves deep green, narrow; flowers red, penduncles green; rocky bushland; uncommon.Aloe francombei L. Newton. TPY 2321Succulent herb; leaves a rosette, sessile or short stem with age; rock slopes of the Mukutan Gorge and Milima and Kisu ridge; uncommon. Spotted leaves that dry black and pale pink flowers.Aloe secundiflora Engl. DO SRLarge fleshy herb; leaves a rosette, unspotted; flowers red; alluvial sandy soils; common.Aloe sp. JM 1881Acaulescent succulent 20 cm tall; rosette leaves 2 cm wide, with a purplish tinge on drying; riparian; uncommonAsparagus aethiopicus L. var. angusticladus Jessup JM 1386Armed woody struggler or scrambler; woodland; common.Asparagus africanus Lam. JM 1384Armed woody climber, stems slightly grooved, zig-zagging; forest edges; common.Asparagus asparagoides (L.) Wight JM 1711Climbing or straggling glabrous unarmed herb; cladodes alternate; upland forest under shade; occasional.Asparagus flagellaris (Kunth.) Bak. JM 1439Erect to climbing armed woody perennial; stem grooved; cladodes needle-like, terete; rocky bushland; common.Asparagus racemosus Willd. (A. buchananii) TOWoody climber; stems zig-zagging, spineless; forest; occasional.Bulbine abyssinica A. Rich. JM 1540Herb; leaves in basal rosette, filiform to linear; flowers sulphur yellow; grassland; common.Chlorophytum sp. nr comosum (Thunb.) Jacq. DO 597Herb; leaves linear-lanceolate; roots tuberous; fruits 3-angled; riverine; occasional.Chlorophytum (Anthericum) subpetiolatum (Bak.) Kativu DO 631Perennial herb; leaves linear-Lanceolate; roots tuberous; flowers white; woodland; occasional.Chlorophytum sylvaticum Dammer (Dasystachys gracilis) JM 2228Small plant from an erect shortly fibrous rhizome; roots swollen, fleshy; leaves in ascending rosette; inflorescence dense; grassland and open woodland; common.Gloriosa superba L.Erect or climbing herb; leaves lanceolate; flowers scarlet or yellow to dark red; grassland; bushland, forest; common.Ornithogalum tenuifolium Delaroch (O. ecklonii) TPY 2236Herb; from a globose bulb; leaves long, linear-lanceolate; open woodlands on seasonally wet soils; occasional.Scilla kirkii Bak. JM 2158Herb; bulbs to 8 cm diameter; leaves ovate to sword shaped, sessile; seasonally wet soils; uncommon.305 TyphaceaeTypha domingensis Pers. TPY SRStout grasslike herb; leaf blades linear narrowing at base; dams; occasional.306 AmaryllidaceaeBöophone disticta Herb. TPY SRHerb with an annually-produced fan of leaves; rocky bushed grassland; common.Crinum macowanii Bak. JM 2169Herb; leaves spiral, linear or strap ⟨u⟩shaped; flowers pink; sandy streams; uncommon⟨/u⟩.Scadoxus (Haemanthus) multiflorus (Martyn) Raf. TPY SRBulbous herb with leaves and inflorescence appearing at different times; leaves elliptic; sheaths purple spotted; flowers densely packed, red to pink; rocky places in forest edges, riverine; common.307 IridaceaeGladiolus newii Bak. (Gladiolus natalensis, G. psittacinus) JM 2040Perennial herb; leaves linear; flowers streaked reddish orange; grassland; occasional.Gladiolus (Acidanthera) ukambensis (Bak.) Marais var. elatus Marais JM 1568Erect herb; flowers long, white, scented; rocky bushed grassland; common.311 DioscoreaceaeDioscorea astericus Burkill DO 547Annual twiner; leaf blades heart-shaped; flowers star-shaped; forest; common.Diocorea quartiniana A. Rich. var. quartiniana JM 1710Climber; leaves 3-5 foliolate; leaflets obovate to elliptic; wooded grassland; occasional.Dioscorea schimperana KunthRobust climber; leaves ± orbicular, cordate, acuminate; forest edges; occasional.313 Dracaenaceae (Agavaceae)Sansevieria robusta N.E. Br. (S. ehrenbergii) TPY SRPerennial; leaves succulent, a basal rosette; rocky slopes; occasional.Sansevieria parva N.E. Br. JM 1851Succulent; leaves linear-elliptic in a rosette; flowers racemose, whitish to dull reddish; woodland; uncommon.Sansevieria raffillii N.E. Br. JM SRRhizomatous herb; leaves 3-6, strap shaped, variagated; flowers whitish; dry bushland; occasional.314 PalmaePhoenix reclinata Jacq. JM 1598Palm about 7 m; flowers pendulous, cream; watercourses; uncommon.318 HypoxidaceaeHypoxis obtusa Burch. JM 1802Perennial herb; leaves narrow, strap-shaped, recurved; flowers 2-4 on a slender scape, yellow; burnt grassland on rocky shallow soil; common.Hypoxis sp. nr obtusa Burch. JM 1909Similar to H obtuse except flowers up to 7 and leaves less hairy.326 OrchidaceaeAngraecum erectum Summerh. DO 567Epiphyte; stems erect, 10-100 cm; leaves rigid, lanceolate; flowers white, dry forest; common.Ansellia africana Lindley DO 621Robust plant, 50-100 cm; flowers dull yellowish green, spotted; deep shade; occasional.Diaphananthe subsimplex Summerh. JM 1827Straggling herb with long aerial roots; inflorescence shorter than leaves; forest; common.Eulophia orthoplectra (Reichb. f.) Summerh. TPY SRHerb; leaves lanceolate; flowers lax; grassland; occasional.331 CyperaceaeCyperus assimilis Steudel TPY 2138Slender to fairly robust annual; root system minute; culms 1-50 cm; seasonally wet habitats; common.Cyperus involucratus Rottb. (C. alternifolius) JM 2120Robust perennial; rhizome 2-10 cm thick, woody, creeping; wet sites and stream banks; common.Cyperus laevigatus L. JM 2118Leafless rhizomatous perennial; inflorescence of one to many sessile spike lets subtended by a short bract which is continuation of the culm; sand banks, river banks; common.Cyperus rotundus L. (C. merkeri) JM 2062Medium sized perennial; stem base swollen; seasonally wet grassland; common.Cyperus niveus Retz.Perennial; culms crowded growing on straight line; dry grassland; occasional.Cyperus obtusiflorus Vahl DO 598Perennial; bases swollen; sheaths dark brown; seasonally wet grassland; common.Cyperus rigidifolius Steudel TPY SRSlender to fairly robust perennial; base woody; grassland near roads and cultivations; common.Cyperus (Mariscus) impubes Steud. DO 599Robust perennial with a thick horizontal rhizome; seasonally waterlogged ground; common.Cyperus sp. TPY 2137Perennial; culms 20 cm; leaf bases swollen; seasonally waterlogged areas; uncommon.Cyperus sp. JM 2103Perennial; culms up to 45 cm; rhizome horizontal; seasonally waterlogged ground; uncommon.Cyperus sp. JM 2104Perennial; culms up to 30 cm; bases swollen; seasonally wet habitats; uncommon.Mariscus dubius Rottb. JM 2121Robust tussocky perennial; culms usually few, together, 10-60 cm; rocky outcrops; common.Schoenoplectus ?proximus (Steud.) J. Rayn. TPY SRDwarf annual growing in small tufts; culms 1-2 cm; wet grassland; uncommon.Rikliella rehmannii (Ridley) J. Rayn. (Scirpus rehmannii) JM 2105Slender annual; roots reddish brown; culms 2-30 cm; seasonally wet grassland; occasional.332 GramineaeAlloteropsis cimicina (L.) Stapf DO 607Tufted annual; culms 30-120 cm; nodes hairy; open places; occasional.Andropogon shirensis A. Rich JM 2068Tufted perennial; culms 40-120 cm, sometimes coated with fibrous remains of old leaf sheaths; bushland, common.Aristida adoensis Hochst. JM 2092Perennial; culms 25-60 cm, densely caespitose; bushland; common.Aristida adscensionis L. DO 500Annual; culms 10-100 cm forming erect or sprawling tufts; waste places; common.Bothriochloa insculpta (A. Rich.) A. Camus JM 2070Tufted perennial; culms 25-200 cm; inflorescence subdigitate; grassland; common.Brachiaria brizantha (A. Rich.) Stapf JM 2083Tufted perennial; culms 30-200 cm, geniculately ascending; wooded grassland; occasional.Brachiaria deflexa (Schumach.) Robyns DO 591Loosely tufted perennial; culms 15-70 cm, weak; bushland; occasional.Brachiaria dictyoneura (Fig. & De Not.) Stapf JM 2080Densely tufted perennial; culms 40-100 cm, never rooting at base; wooded grassland; occasional.Brachiaria serrata (Thunb.) Stapf JM 2089Densely tufted perennial; basal sheaths silk tomentose; wooded grassland; occasional.Brachiaria serrifolia (Hochst.) Stapf DO 519Annual; culms 40-100 cm; leaf-blades cordate; deciduous bushland; occasional.Brachiaria xantholeuca (Schinz) Stapf DO 624Tufted annual; culms 20-40 cm; leaves velvety pubescent; bushland; common.Chloris gayana Kunth JM SRPerennial; culms 0.5-2.2 m; riverine woodland; common.Chloris pycnothrix Trin. TPY SRAnnual; culms up to 0.5 m; grassland with scattered trees; occasional.Chloris virgata Sw. JM 2073Annual; culms up to 1 m; scattered tree grassland; occasional.Ctenium somalense (Chiov.) Chiov. JM 2063Tufted wiry perennial; basal sheaths dense mass of fibres; grassland; occasional.Cymbopogon pospischilii (K. Schum.) C.E. Hubbard DO 551Tufted perennial; culms 40-100 cm; basal sheaths persistent; bushland; common.Cynodon plectostachyus (K. Schum.) Pilg. DO 659Perennial without a rhizome; stolons stout and woody; disturbed bushland; occasional.Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L.) Willd. TPY 2238Annual; culms to 70 cm; geniculately ascending; open grassland, weed; common.Digitaria diagonalis (Nees) Stapf JM 2090Tufted perennial; basal sheaths silky hairy; open grassland; common.Digitaria milanjiana (Rendle) Stapf TPY 2208Loosely tufted rhizomatous perennial; basal sheaths glabrous; old cultivations and habitations; common.Elionurus muticus (Spreng.) Kuntze (E. argenteus) JM 2066Densely tufted perennial; culms 15-100 cm, leaf blades filiform; stony bushland; common.Enneapogon cenchroides (Roem. & Schult.) C.E. Hubbard JM 2085Tufted robust annual; culms up to 1 m; wooded grassland; common.Eragrostis aspera (Jacq.) Nees DO 476Tufted annual, culms 20-80 cm; disturbed grassland; common.Eragrostis cilianensis (All.) Lut. JM 2081Loosely tufted annual; culms 10-90 cm; leaf blades with warty glands along the margin; overgrazed places; common.Eragrostis papposa (Roem. & Schult.) Steud. JM 2097Tufted perennial; short lived; culms 10-40 cm; bushland; occasional.Eragrostis pycnostachys W.D. Clayton JM 2110Tufted perennial; culms hard, wiry, I m; forest stream banks; occasional.Eragrostis racemosa (Thunb.) Steud. JM 2087Tufted perennial; culms 9-80 cm; shallow stony soils; common.Eragrostis superba Peyr. JM2078Perennial forming mats; culms 20-120 cm; wooded grassland; common.Hackelochloa granularis (L.) Kuntze DO 638Annual; culms 5-100 cm; leaf blades coarsely hispid; disturbed ground; occasional.Harpachne schimperi A. Rich. JM 2095Densely tufted perennial; culms 13-52 cm; inflorescence lax; grassland; occasional.Heteropogon contortus (L.) Roem. & Schult. JM 2065Tufted perennial; culms 30-100 cm; basal sheaths laterally compressed; wooded grassland; common.Hyparrhenia hirta (L.) Stapf JM2075Mat forming perennial; culms 30-60 cm; bushland; common.Leptochloa sp. TPY 2220Tufted perennial; grassland; uncommon.Loudetia flavida (Stapf) C.E. Hubbard TPY 2214Tufted perennial; culms 30-150 cm; bushland on rocky slopes; common.Loudetia kagerensis (K. Schum.) Hutch. JM 2067Tufted perennial; culms 25-90 cm, blacked at nodes; stony hillsides; common.Loudetia simplex (Nees) C.E. Hubbard JM 2064Tufted perennial; culms 30-150 cm, nodes yellowish to black and glabrous to bearded; panicle linear to narrowly ovate; deciduous bushland; common.Microchloa indica (L.f.) P. Beauv. TPY 2198Loosely mat forming annual (individual tufts); culms 5-50 cm; open grassland; occasional.Oplismenus burmannii (Retz.) P. Beauv. TPY 2329Annual, prostrate or trailing; culms 10-60 cm; forest shade or bushland trees; common.Panicum atrosanguineum A. Rich. DO 499Tufted annual; culms 10-40 cm; disturbed places; occasional.Panicum maximum Jacq. JM 2101Loosely to densely tufted perennial; culms 25-200 cm; damp bushland; common.Panicum sp. TPY 2221Tufted perennial.Panicum sp. TPY 2213Tufted perennial; culms 20 cm; bushed woodland; uncommon.Pennisetum mezianum Leeke JM 2082Shrubby perennial; culms 30-120 cm, ascending from a prostrate base; bushland; occasional.Rhynchelytrum repens (Willd.) C.E. Hubbard JM 2072Annual or loosely tufted perennial; culms 30-100 cm; disturbed places, weed; common.Sehima nervosum (Rottler) Stapf DO 463Tufted perennial; culms 30-100 cm; leaf blades long acuminate; stony bushland; occasional.Setaria acromelaena (Hochst.) Th. Dur. & Shinz TPY 2197Loosely tufted annual; culms 15-50 cm; weedy places; common.Setaria homonyma (Steud.) Chiov. DO 498Loosely tufted annual; culms 25-100 cm; weed of shady cultivation; uncommon.Setaria orthosticha Herrm. TPY 2205Loosely tufted annual; culms 10-150 cm; woodland shade; common.Setaria plicatilis (Hochst.) Engl. JM 2093Tufted perennial; culms slender (2-3 mm basal diameter) radiating outwards to form a clump 0.5-1 m high; forest shade; occasional.Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult. JM 2074Loosely tufted annual; culms 5-130 cm, nodes glabrous; pathsides, weed.Setaria sphacelata (Schumach.) Moss JM 2071Tufted perennial from short rhizomes; culms 20-300 cm; wooded grassland; common.Setaria verticillata (L.) P. Beauv. JM 2107Loosely tufted annual; culms 10-100 cm, geniculately ascending; deserted human habitations; common.Sorghum arundinaceum (Desv.) Stapf DO 617Annual or short lived perennial; culms 0.3-4 m, often robust; disturbed places; common.Sporobolus fimbriatus (Trin.) Nees JM 2094Tufted perennial; culms 50-100 cm; leaves mostly basal; open bushland; common.Sporobolus panicoides A. Rich. TPY 2211Loosely tufted perennial; culms 15-100 cm; primary branches of panicles in whorls; bushland; occasional.Sporobolus piliferus (Trin.) Kunth TPY 2210Tufted annual; culms 5-40 cm; primary branches of panicles subverticillate, short; open places; occasional.Sporobolus sp. TPY 2216Perennial; culms erect to 80 cm; grassland; uncommon.Themeda triandra Forssk. JM 2069Tufted perennial; culms 30-200 cm; false panicle wedge shaped; bushland; common.Tragus berteronianus Schult. JM 2079Loosely tufted annual; culms 5-60 cm; inflorescence compactly cylindrical; overgrazed areas; occasional.Urochloa panicoides P. Beauv. DO 635Tufted annual; culms 10-100 cm, base prostrate; deserted human habitations; common.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThis work was completed under the auspices of and supported by the Gallmann Memorial Foundation. We most especially thank K. Gallmann for continuing support. We would like to thank E. Vanden Berghe, H. Beentje, L. Bennun, and anonymous reviewers for helpful comments on the manuscript. Delulu Upson typed the ms beautifully, despite its unfamiliar and difficult terminology. Additional support was provided by P. Robinson and the Kenya Program of St. Lawrence University; the Department of Botany and the Center for Population Biology, University of California at Davis; Operation Raleigh; R. Brett; L. Isbell; and the National Museums of Kenya.REFERENCESAgnew, A.D.Q. & S. Agnew (1995). Upland Kenya Wildflowers. East African Natural History Society, Nairobi.Ahn, P.S. & L.C. Geiger (1987). Soils of Laikipia District. 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Seasonal variation in the feeding ecology of black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornus L.) in Laikipia, Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 32: 142-157.Polhill, R.M., W.B. Turrill, & E. Milne-Redhead (eds.) 1957-continuing. Flora of Tropical East Africa (numerous vols.), Crown Agents, London. (Later volumes by other editors, and published by A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam.)Taiti, S.W. (1992). The vegetation of Laikipia District Kenya. Laikipia - Mt Kenya Papers, B-2. Laikipia Research Programme, Universities of Nairobi and Bern.Young, T.P. & C. Francombe (1991). Growth and yield estimates in natural stands of leleshwa (Tarconanthus camphoratus). Forest Ecology and Management 41: 309-321.Young, T.P. & K.W. Lindsay (1988). The role of even-aged population structure in the disappearance of Acacia xantophloea woodlands. African Journal of Ecology 26: 69-72.Yuong, T.P., N. Patridge & A. Macray (1995). Long-term glades in acacia bushland and their edge effects in Laikipia, Kenya. Ecological Applications 5: 97-108Young, T.P. & M.M. Peacock (1992). Giant senecios and alpine vegetation of Mount Kenya. Journal of Ecology 80: 141-148.

Joshua M. Muasya, Truman P. Young, and David N. Okebiro "Vegetation Map and Plant Checklist of Ol Ari Nyiro Ranch and the Mukutan Gorge, Laikipia, Kenya," Journal of East African Natural History 83(2), 143-197, (1 July 1994).[143:VMAPCO]2.0.CO;2
Published: 1 July 1994

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