The dragonfly fauna of the Rufiji District was studied during several field trips in 2001–2003 covering the rainy and the dry season. A total of 73 species was recorded by capture with net and visual identification of imagos. Ceriagrion mourae was seen for the first time since its description from Mozambique in 1969. Ceriagrion mourae, Teinobasis alluaudi, Gynacantha immaculifrons, Paragomphus magnus and Paragomphus sabicus are first records for Tanzania. Coryphagrion grandis, Ceriagrion mourae, Teinobasis alluaudi and Hadrothemis scabrifrons are globally endangered habitat specialists confined to coastal forests of Eastern Africa.
The majority of the species are common and widespread and inhabits the Rufiji River and its floodplains, while a smaller proportion are only found in permanent streams draining into the Rufiji or in forest habitats. The high overall species richness is a result of the variety of habitats and their connectivity, combined with the dynamics of the floods. The habitat specialists found in Ngumburuni forest and in the forests of the Kichi and Kiwengoma Hills are globally endangered species and require special attention with regard to conservation.