Cultural and chemical controls were evaluated to determine their ability to deter feeding by Japanese beetles, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), on floribunda type roses, Rosa ‘Acadia Sunrise’. Roses were arranged in field plots and exposed to resident adult beetle populations. Cultural controls were designed to block the feeding-induced aggregation response by manually removing beetles and/or damaged blooms from rose plants. Azadirachtin, carbaryl, and imidacloprid were evaluated in field and laboratory trials. In no-choice laboratory assays, foliar applications of azadirachtin caused low rates of morbidity to adult beetles and were unable to deter feeding. Foliar-applied carbaryl and soil-applied imidacloprid caused high rates of morbidity and reduced feeding injury. In the field, foliar sprays of azadirachtin and carbaryl, deterred feeding on foliage under low beetle pressure (maximum of 29% defoliation in untreated controls), when applied weekly after first beetle flight or every 2 wk after 5% injury was reached. A single foliar application of these materials at the 5% injury level did not significantly reduce peak defoliation. Soil applications of imidacloprid also deterred foliar feeding in the field. Blooms were more difficult to protect with both foliar- and soil-applied insecticides with only weekly application of foliar insecticides providing significant reductions in bloom injury. Removing beetles and/or blooms provided marginally greater reductions in leaf and flower injury. This suggests that blocking the feeding-induced aggregation response of Japanese beetles can provide only modest levels of control in roses where both flowers and feeding-induced volatiles recruit beetles to plants.
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Vol. 100 • No. 1