Studies were conducted to investigate the effects of a kaolin-based hydrophilic particle film, Surround WP, on the biology and behavior of the psyllidDiaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and to assess population densities ofD.citri in citrus subjected to monthly applications of Surround WP. Laboratory investigations indicated a 3% (wt:vol) suspension of Surround WP in water applied directly was not acutely toxic to eggs, older nymphs or adults. Presence of the dried particle film on leaves interfered with the ability of adults to grasp and walk on citrus leaves. During a 30-s period, adults spent an average of 5 s moving on leaves with particle film compared with 16 s on leaves without particle film. When leaves were inverted, a significantly higher percentage of adults fell or flew from treated leaves (53%) than untreated leaves (16%). In a 12-mo study investigating infestations ofD.citri on citrus treated monthly with Surround WP, cumulative reductions of 78% in adult numbers on mature leaves and of 60% in adult numbers on flush shoots (immature leaves) were observed in treated trees compared with untreated trees. Numbers of eggs and nymphs per flush shoot were reduced by 85 and 78%, respectively, in trees treated with particle film. Reductions in infestation levels ofD.citri in treated trees were attributed to the negative effects of the particle film on the ability of adults to grasp, move, and oviposit. The suppressive effects of a Surround treatment against adult psyllids were degraded by rain.
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Vol. 100 • No. 3