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1 June 2007 Linear Alcohol Ethoxylates: Insecticidal and Synergistic Effects on German Cockroaches (Blattodea: Blattellidae) and Other Insects
Steven R. Sims, Arthur G. Appel
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Sixteen linear ethoxylated alcohol surfactants (AEOs) were studied to determine their contact insecticidal activity to adult German cockroaches,Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattodea: Blattellidae). Within groups of AEOs of equal carbon chain length, insecticidal activity, measured as LT50 values (in minutes) and 24-h mortality after treatment, was inversely related to the amount of ethoxylation. There was a highly significant negative relationship between the hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) value of the AEO and contact toxicity. The AEO with the lowest HLB value, Tomadol 23-1 (HLB = 3.7), produced the greatest 24-h cockroach mortality. The contact activity of Tomadol 23-1 was evaluated against a wide range of other insect species. Most species were killed within 24 h by direct exposure (1–4 μl of a 50% ethanol solution) to Tomadol 23-1 or by spray exposure to an aqueous solution. Tomadol 23-1, at a sublethal concentration, was tested in combination with representative members of the carbamate, nicotinoid, organophosphate, pyrethrum, pyrethroid, and pyrrole insecticide classes. Significant synergism was demonstrated in combinations of Tomadol 23-1 and chlorfenapyr, clothianidin, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, and pyrethrum. Tomadol 23-1 significantly reduced the insecticidal activity of propoxur, suggesting antagonism. The insecticidal activity of Tomadol 23-1 was synergized by coapplication with a sublethal amount of piperonyl butoxide, indicating the involvement of cytochrome P450 microsomal monooxygenases in insect metabolism of AEO surfactants.

Steven R. Sims and Arthur G. Appel "Linear Alcohol Ethoxylates: Insecticidal and Synergistic Effects on German Cockroaches (Blattodea: Blattellidae) and Other Insects," Journal of Economic Entomology 100(3), 871-879, (1 June 2007).[871:LAEIAS]2.0.CO;2
Received: 18 September 2006; Accepted: 24 February 2007; Published: 1 June 2007

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