The occurrence of pear decline, a disease found in some pear (Pyrus spp.) orchards of Taiwan in recent years, is accompanied by an outbreak of Cacopsylla chinensis (Yang & Li). Two major morphological forms (summer and winter forms) with a variety of intermediate body color and two phylogenetic lineages of this psyllid have been described. The work herein used sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and 16S rDNA regions to delineate the genetic differentiation of this color-variable insect and to elucidate their relationship. Sequence divergence and phylogenetic analysis have shown that C. chinensis individuals could be divided into two lineages with 3.3 and 2.3% divergence of COI and 16S rDNA, respectively. All specimens from China were found to belong to lineage I. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of COI with restriction enzymes AcuI, AseI, BccI, and FokI on 263 specimens of six populations from Taiwan produced two digestion patterns, which are in agreement with the two lineages described above. Both patterns could be found in each population, with most individuals belonging to lineage I and 5–21% of the individuals belonging to lineage II. Because these two lineages included summer as well as winter morphological forms, the lineage differentiation is apparently not related to morphological characters of this psyllid. Because the invasive records are not in favor of a sympatric differentiation, this psyllid is more likely introduced as different populations from countries in temperate regions.
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Vol. 101 • No. 4